机组销售:0574-26871589  

配件销售:0574-26886646

维修热线:0574-26871569

     :0574-26892499

     :宁波戚家山联合路246-252

网  址:http://www.rxdlkj.com 
产品展示
  • 您现在所在的位置:
  • 首页  >
  • 产品展示
珀金斯403F-15T、404F-22、404F-22T柴油机维修操作保养一


详细描述:

Operation and

Maintenance

Manual

403F-15T, 404F-22 and 404F-22T

Industrial Engines

EL (Engine)

EN (Engine)

EP (Engine)

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

Important Safety Information

Most  accidents    tha t involve  produc  t  op eration,  ma intena nc e and   repair   are  caus  ed  by  failure  to

ob serve  basic   safety   rules  or  precautions  .  An accident    can   often  be  avoided   by  recog nizing  pote ntially

ha za rdous  situations   before   an  accident    oc curs . A person    mus t be  alert   to pote ntial  ha za rds.  This

person   should   also  ha ve  the  ne cessary   training,  skills  and   tools  to perform   the se  func tions properly.

Improper operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair  of this product can be dangerous and

could result in injury  or death.

Do not operate or perform any lubrication, maintenance or repair on this  product, until you have

read and understood the operation, lubrication, maintenance and repair information.

Sa fety precautions     and  warning s  are   provided   in this  ma nua l and   on  the  produc t.  If the se  ha za rd

warning s  are  not  he eded,   bod ily injury  or death   could   oc cur to  you  or to  othe r persons  .

The  ha za rds are   identified   by  the  “Safety  Alert  Symb ol”  and  followed  by  a  “Signa l  Word” suc h  as

“DANGER”, “WARNING”  or “CAUTION”.  The Sa fety  Alert  “WARNING” label  is  shown   below.

The  me aning  of  this safety   alert   symb ol is  as  follows:

Attention! Become Alert! Your Safety is  Involved.

The  me ssage   tha t appears     und er the   warning  explains    the  ha za rd and   can  be   either  written  or

pictorially   presente  d.

Op erations  tha t  ma y caus e  produc  t dama  ge  are  identified   by  “NOTICE” labels   on  the  produc  t and   in

this  pub lication.

Perkins cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard. The

warnings in this publication and on the product are, therefore, not all inclusive. If a tool, procedure,

work method or operating technique that is not specifically recommended by Perkins is used,

you must satisfy yourself that it is safe  for you and for others. You should also ensure that the

product will not be damaged or be  made unsafe by the operation, lubrication, maintenance or

repair procedures that you choose.

The  informa tion, specifications   ,  and  illustrations   in  this  pub lication  are   on the  basis    of informa tion tha t

was  available    at  the  time  tha t the  pub lication   was  written.   The  specifications   , torque  s,  pressure  s,

me asure me nts , adjustme  nts , illustrations ,  and  othe r  items  can  cha  ng e at  any  time.  These  cha ng es  can

affect   the  service   tha t is given   to the  produc  t.  Ob tain the  comp  lete  and  mos t current   informa tion before

you  start any   job. Pe  rkins  dealers   or   Pe rkins  distributors     ha ve  the  mos t current   informa tion  available.

When  replacement  parts  are  required  for  this

product Perkins recommends using Perkins

 replacement  parts.

Failure to heed this warning can lead to prema-

ture failures, product damage, personal injury or

death.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

SEBU8609

3

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Refill Capacities....................... ....................... 57

Maintenance Recommendations.......... .......... 70

Maintenance Interval Schedule........... ........... 73

Warranty Section

Foreword.............................. ............................. 4

Safety Section

Safety Messages....................... ....................... 5

General Hazard Information............... .............. 5

Burn Prevention........................ ........................ 9

Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention ... .. 10

Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention . .11

Mounting and Dismounting............... .............. 12

Before Starting Engine ................. .................. 12

Engine Starting........................ ....................... 12

Engine Stopping....................... ...................... 13

Electrical System...................... ...................... 13

Engine Electronics..................... ..................... 14

Product Information Section

Warranty Information................... ................... 99

Reference Information Section

Reference Materials .................. ................... 103

Index Section

Index............................... .............................. 104

General Information.................... .................... 15

Product Identification Information.......... ......... 26

Operation Section

Lifting and Storage..................... ..................... 28

Features and Controls.................. .................. 30

Engine Diagnostics..................... .................... 43

Engine Starting........................ ....................... 45

Engine Operation...................... ...................... 48

Cold Weather Operation................. ................ 52

Engine Stopping....................... ...................... 56

Maintenance Section

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

4

SEBU8609

Foreword

Foreword

Recommended service should be performed at the

appropriate intervals as indicated in the Maintenance

Interval Schedule. The actual operating environment

of the engine also governs the Maintenance Interval

Schedule. Therefore, under extremely severe, dusty,

wet or freezing cold operating conditions, more

frequent lubrication and maintenance than is

specified in the Maintenance Interval Schedule may

be necessary.

Literature Information

This manual contains safety, operation instructions,

lubrication and maintenance information. This manual

should be stored in or near the engine area in a

literature holder or literature storage area. Read,

study and keep it with the literature and engine

information.

The maintenance schedule items are organized for a

preventive maintenance management program. If the

preventive maintenance program is followed, a

periodic tune-up is not required. The implementation

of a preventive maintenance management program

should minimize operating costs through cost

avoidances resulting from reductions in unscheduled

downtime and failures.

English is the primary language for all Perkins

publications. The English used facilitates translation

and consistency.

Some photographs or illustrations in this manual

show details or attachments that may be different

from your engine. Guards and covers may have been

removed for illustrative purposes. Continuing

improvement and advancement of product design

may have caused changes to your engine which are

not included in this manual. Whenever a question

arises regarding your engine, or this manual, please

consult with your Perkins dealer or your Perkins

distributor for the latest available information.

Maintenance Intervals

Perform maintenance on items at multiples of the

original requirement. We recommend that the

maintenance schedules be reproduced and displayed

near the engine as a convenient reminder. We also

recommend that a maintenance record be maintained

as part of the engine's permanent record.

Safety

Your authorized Perkins dealer or your Perkins

distributor can assist you in adjusting your

maintenance schedule to meet the needs of your

operating environment.

This safety section lists basic safety precautions. In

addition, this section identifies hazardous, warning

situations. Read and understand the basic

precautions listed in the safety section before

operating or performing lubrication, maintenance and

repair on this product.

Overhaul

Major engine overhaul details are not covered in the

Operation and Maintenance Manual except for the

interval and the maintenance items in that interval.

Major repairs should only be carried out by Perkins

authorized personnel. Your Perkins dealer or your

Perkins distributor offers a variety of options

regarding overhaul programs. If you experience a

major engine failure, there are also numerous after

failure overhaul options available. Consult with your

Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for

information regarding these options.

Operation

Operating techniques outlined in this manual are

basic. They assist with developing the skills and

techniques required to operate the engine more

efficiently and economically. Skill and techniques

develop as the operator gains knowledge of the

engine and its capabilities.

The operation section is a reference for operators.

Photographs and illustrations guide the operator

through procedures of inspecting, starting, operating

and stopping the engine. This section also includes a

discussion of electronic diagnostic information.

California Proposition 65 Warning

Diesel engine exhaust and some of its constituents

are known to the State of California to cause cancer,

birth defects, and other reproductive harm. Battery

posts, terminals and related accessories contain lead

and lead compounds. Wash hands after handling.

Maintenance

The maintenance section is a guide to engine care.

The illustrated, step-by-step instructions are grouped

by service hours and/or calendar time maintenance

intervals. Items in the maintenance schedule are

referenced to detailed instructions that follow.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

SEBU8609

5

Safety Section

Safety Messages

Safety Section

Do not operate or work on this equipment unless

you  have read  and  understand the  instructions

and warnings  in the Operation  and Maintenance

Manuals. Failure to follow the instructions or heed

the  warnings  could  result  in  serious  injury  or

death.

i05139549

Safety Messages

There may be several specific warning signs on your

engine. The exact location and a description of the

warning signs are reviewed in this section. Become

familiar with all warning signs.

Ensure that all of the warning signs are legible. Clean

the warning signs or replace the warning signs if the

words cannot be read or if the illustrations are not

visible. Use a cloth, water, and soap to clean the

warning signs. Do not use solvents, gasoline, or other

harsh chemicals. Solvents, gasoline, or harsh

chemicals could loosen the adhesive that secures the

warning signs. The warning signs that are loosened

could drop off the engine.

Replace any warning sign that is damaged or

missing. If a warning sign is attached to a part of the

engine that is replaced, install a new warning sign on

the replacement part. Your Perkins dealer or your

distributor can provide new warning signs.

Illustration 2

g01154807

Typical example

(1) Universal Warning

The location of the universal warning label is located

on the right side of the valve mechanism cover.

i05139571

General Hazard Information

Illustration 1

g03256898

Illustration 3

g00104545

(1) Universal Warning

Attach a “Do Not Operate”  warning tag or a similar

warning tag to the start switch or to the controls

before you service the equipment or before you repair

the equipment.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

6

SEBU8609

Safety Section

General Hazard Information

•   Tampering with the engine installation or tampering

with the OEM supplied wiring can be dangerous.

Personal injury, death and/or engine damage

could result.

•   The engine is stopped. Ensure that the engine

cannot be started.

•   The protective locks or the controls are in the

applied position.

•   Vent the engine exhaust to the outside when the

engine is operated in an enclosed area.

•   Engage the secondary brakes or parking brakes.

•   Block the vehicle or restrain the vehicle before

maintenance or repairs are performed.

•   If the engine is not running, do not release the

secondary brake or the parking brake systems

unless the vehicle is blocked or unless the vehicle

is restrained.

•   Disconnect the batteries when maintenance is

performed or when the electrical system is

serviced. Disconnect the battery ground leads.

Tape the leads in order to help prevent sparks.

•   Wear a hard hat, protective glasses, and other

protective equipment, as required.

•   Do not attempt any repairs or any adjustments to

the engine while the engine is operating.

•   When work is performed around an engine that is

operating, wear protective devices for ears in order

to help prevent damage to hearing.

•   Do not attempt any repairs that are not

understood. Use the proper tools. Replace any

equipment that is damaged or repair the

equipment.

•   Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry that can snag

on controls or on other parts of the engine.

•   Ensure that all protective guards and all covers are

secured in place on the engine.

•   For initial start-up of a new engine or for starting an

engine that has been serviced, make provisions to

stop the engine if an overspeed occurs. The

stopping of the engine may be accomplished by

shutting off the fuel supply and/or the air supply to

the engine. Ensure that only the fuel supply line is

shut off. Ensure that the fuel return line is open.

•   Never put maintenance fluids into glass

containers. Glass containers can break.

•   Use all cleaning solutions with care.

•   Report all necessary repairs.

•   Start the engine from the operators station (cab).

Never short across the starting motor terminals or

the batteries. This action could bypass the engine

neutral start system and/or the electrical system

could be damaged.

Unless other instructions are provided, perform the

maintenance under the following conditions:

Illustration 4

g00702020

Wear a hard hat, protective glasses, and other

protective equipment, as required.

Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry that can snag

on controls or on other parts of the engine.

Make sure that all protective guards and all covers

are secured in place on the engine.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

SEBU8609

7

Safety Section

General Hazard Information

Keep the engine free from foreign material. Remove

debris, oil, tools, and other items from the deck, from

walkways, and from steps.

Never put maintenance fluids into glass containers.

Drain all liquids into a suitable container.

Obey all local regulations for the disposal of liquids.

Use all cleaning solutions with care.

Report all necessary repairs.

Do not allow unauthorized personnel on the

equipment.

Ensure that the power supply is disconnected before

you work on the bus bar or the glow plugs.

Illustration 5

g00687600

Perform maintenance on the engine with the

equipment in the servicing position. Refer to the OEM

information for the procedure for placing the

equipment in the servicing position.

Always use a board or cardboard when you check for

a leak. Leaking fluid that is under pressure can

penetrate body tissue. Fluid penetration can cause

serious injury and possible death. A pin hole leak can

cause severe injury. If fluid is injected into your skin,

you must get treatment immediately. Seek treatment

from a doctor that is familiar with this type of injury.

Pressure Air and Water

Pressurized air and/or water can cause debris and/or

hot water to be blown out. This could result in

personal injury.

Containing Fluid Spillage

Care must be taken in order to ensure that fluids are

contained during performance of inspection,

maintenance, testing, adjusting, and repair of the

engine. Make provision to collect the fluid with a

suitable container before any compartment is opened

or before any component is disassembled.

The direct application of pressurized air or

pressurized water to the body could result in personal

injury.

When pressurized air and/or water is used for

cleaning, wear protective clothing, protective shoes,

and eye protection. Eye protection includes goggles

or a protective face shield.

•   Only use the tools that are suitable for collecting

fluids and equipment that is suitable for collecting

fluids.

The maximum air pressure for cleaning purposes

must be below 205 kPa (30 psi). The maximum water

pressure for cleaning purposes must be below

275 kPa (40 psi).

•   Only use the tools that are suitable for containing

fluids and equipment that is suitable for containing

fluids.

Fluid Penetration

Obey all local regulations for the disposal of liquids.

Pressure can be trapped in the hydraulic circuit long

after the engine has been stopped. The pressure can

cause hydraulic fluid or items such as pipe plugs to

escape rapidly if the pressure is not relieved correctly.

Do not remove any hydraulic components or parts

until pressure has been relieved or personal injury

may occur. Do not disassemble any hydraulic

components or parts until pressure has been relieved

or personal injury may occur. Refer to the OEM

information for any procedures that are required to

relieve the hydraulic pressure.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

8

SEBU8609

Safety Section

General Hazard Information

Inhalation

•   Never use compressed air for cleaning.

•   Avoid brushing materials that contain asbestos.

•   Avoid grinding materials that contain asbestos.

•   Use a wet method in order to clean up asbestos

materials.

•   A vacuum cleaner that is equipped with a high

efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA) can also be

used.

•   Use exhaust ventilation on permanent machining

jobs.

•   Wear an approved respirator if there is no other

way to control the dust.

Illustration 6

g00702022

•   Comply with applicable rules and regulations for

the work place. In the United States , use

Occupational Safety and Health Administration

(OSHA)  requirements. These OSHA

Exhaust

Use caution. Exhaust fumes can be hazardous to

health. If you operate the equipment in an enclosed

area, adequate ventilation is necessary.

requirements can be found in 29 CFR 1910.1001.

•   Obey environmental regulations for the disposal of

asbestos.

Asbestos Information

•   Stay away from areas that might have asbestos

particles in the air.

Perkins equipment and replacement parts that are

shipped from Perkins are asbestos free. Perkins

recommends the use of only genuine Perkins

replacement parts. Use the following guidelines when

you handle any replacement parts that contain

asbestos or when you handle asbestos debris.

Dispose of Waste Properly

Use caution. Avoid inhaling dust that might be

generated when you handle components that contain

asbestos fibers. Inhaling this dust can be hazardous

to your health. The components that may contain

asbestos fibers are brake pads, brake bands, lining

material, clutch plates, and some gaskets. The

asbestos that is used in these components is usually

bound in a resin or sealed in some way. Normal

handling is not hazardous unless airborne dust that

contains asbestos is generated.

If dust that may contain asbestos is present, there are

several guidelines that should be followed:

Illustration 7

g00706404

Improperly disposing of waste can threaten the

environment. Potentially harmful fluids should be

disposed of according to local regulations.

Always use leakproof containers when you drain

fluids. Do not pour waste onto the ground, down a

drain, or into any source of water.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

SEBU8609

9

Safety Section

Burn Prevention

i05200861

Coolant

Burn Prevention

When the engine is at operating temperature, the

engine coolant is hot. The coolant is also under

pressure. The radiator and all lines to the heaters or

to the engine contain hot coolant.

Do not touch any part of an operating engine system.

The engine, the exhaust, and the engine

aftertreatmentsystem can reach temperatures as

high as 650 °C (1202 °F) under normal operating

conditions.

Any contact with hot coolant or with steam can cause

severe burns. Allow cooling system components to

cool before the cooling system is drained.

Check that the coolant level after the engine has

stopped and the engine has been allowed to cool.

At idle engine speed and/or zero vehicle speed, an

operator can request a manual regeneration. Under

this condition, the exhaust gas temperature can reach

650 °C (1202 °F). Otherwise automatic regeneration

can produce exhaust gas temperatures as high as

650 °C (1202 °F).

Ensure that the filler cap is cool before removing the

filler cap. The filler cap must be cool enough to touch

with a bare hand. Remove the filler cap slowly in

order to relieve pressure.

Cooling system conditioner contains alkali. Alkali can

cause personal injury. Do not allow alkali to contact

the skin, the eyes, or the mouth.

Allow the engine system to cool before any

maintenance is performed. Relieve all pressure in the

following systems, hydraulic system, lubrication

system, fuel system, and the cooling system before

related items are disconnected.

Oils

Hot oil and hot lubricating components can cause

personal injury. Do not allow hot oil to contact the

skin. Also, do not allow hot components to contact the

skin.

Contact with high  pressure fuel may  cause fluid

penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel

spray may  cause a  fire hazard. Failure  to follow

these  inspection,  maintenance  and  service  in-

structions may cause personal injury or death.

Batteries

Electrolyte is an acid. Electrolyte can cause personal

injury. Do not allow electrolyte to contact the skin or

the eyes. Always wear protective glasses for

servicing batteries. Wash hands after touching the

batteries and connectors. Use of gloves is

recommended.

After the engine has stopped, allow if active the

regeneration active lamp to be extinguished before

any service or repair is performed.

Induction System

Sulfuric Acid Burn Hazard may cause serious per-

sonal injury or death.

The  exhaust  gas   cooler  may  contain  a  small

amount of sulfuric acid. The use of fuel with sulfur

levels  greater  than  15  ppm   may  increase  the

amount of sulfuric acid formed. The  sulfuric acid

may spill from the cooler during service of the en-

gine. The sulfuric acid will burn the eyes, skin and

clothing on contact. Always wear the appropriate

personal protective equipment (PPE) that is noted

on a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for sulfuric

acid. Always follow the directions for first aid that

are noted on a material safety data  sheet (MSDS)

for sulfuric acid.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

10

SEBU8609

Safety Section

Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention

i04047444

Do not weld on lines or tanks that contain flammable

fluids. Do not flame cut lines or tanks that contain

flammable fluid. Clean any such lines or tanks

thoroughly with a nonflammable solvent prior to

welding or flame cutting.

Fire Prevention and Explosion

Prevention

Wiring must be kept in good condition. Ensure that all

electrical wires are correctly routed and securely

attached. Check all electrical wires daily. Repair any

wires that are loose or frayed before you operate the

engine. Clean all electrical connections and tighten all

electrical connections.

Eliminate all wiring that is unattached or unnecessary.

Do not use any wires or cables that are smaller than

the recommended gauge. Do not bypass any fuses

and/or circuit breakers.

Arcing or sparking could cause a fire. Secure

connections, recommended wiring, and correctly

maintained battery cables will help to prevent arcing

or sparking.

Ensure that the engine is stopped. Inspect all lines

and hoses for wear or for deterioration. The hoses

must be correctly routed. The lines and hoses must

have adequate support and secure clamps.

Illustration 8

g00704000

All fuels, most lubricants, and some coolant mixtures

are flammable.

Oil filters and fuel filters must be correctly installed.

The filter housings must be tightened to the correct

torque. Refer to the Disassembly and Assembly

manual  for more information.

Flammable fluids that are leaking or spilled onto hot

surfaces or onto electrical components can cause a

fire. Fire may cause personal injury and property

damage.

After the emergency stop button has been operated,

ensure that you allow 15 minutes, before the engine

covers are removed.

Determine whether the engine will be operated in an

environment that allows combustible gases to be

drawn into the air inlet system. These gases could

cause the engine to overspeed. Personal injury,

property damage, or engine damage could result.

If the application involves the presence of

combustible gases, consult your Perkins dealer and/

or your Perkins distributor for additional information

about suitable protection devices.

Remove all flammable combustible materials or

conductive materials such as fuel, oil, and debris from

the engine. Do not allow any flammable combustible

materials or conductive materials to accumulate on

the engine.

Store fuels and lubricants in correctly marked

containers away from unauthorized persons. Store

oily rags and any flammable materials in protective

containers. Do not smoke in areas that are used for

storing flammable materials.

Illustration 9

g00704059

Use caution when you are refueling an engine. Do not

smoke while you are refueling an engine. Do not

refuel an engine near open flames or sparks. Always

stop the engine before refueling.

Do not expose the engine to any flame.

Exhaust shields (if equipped) protect hot exhaust

components from oil or fuel spray in case of a line, a

tube, or a seal failure. Exhaust shields must be

installed correctly.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

SEBU8609

11

Safety Section

Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention

•   High-pressure fuel line or lines are removed.

•   End fittings are damaged or leaking.

•   Outer coverings are chafed or cut.

•   Wires are exposed.

•   Outer coverings are ballooning.

•   Flexible parts of the hoses are kinked.

•   Outer covers have embedded armoring.

•   End fittings are displaced.

Make sure that all clamps, guards, and heat shields

are installed correctly. During engine operation,

correct installation will help to prevent vibration,

rubbing against other parts, and excessive heat.

Regeneration

The exhaust gas temperature during regeneration will

be elevated. Follow proper fire prevention instructions

and use the disable switch function when appropriate.

Illustration 10

g00704135

Gases from a battery can explode. Keep any open

flames or sparks away from the top of a battery. Do

not smoke in battery charging areas.

i02143194

Never check the battery charge by placing a metal

object across the terminal posts. Use a voltmeter or a

hydrometer.

Crushing Prevention and

Cutting Prevention

Incorrect jumper cable connections can cause an

explosion that can result in injury. Refer to the

Operation Section of this manual for specific

instructions.

Support the component correctly when work beneath

the component is performed.

Do not charge a frozen battery. Charge a frozen

battery may cause an explosion.

Unless other maintenance instructions are provided,

never attempt adjustments while the engine is

running.

The batteries must be kept clean. The covers (if

equipped) must be kept on the cells. Use the

recommended cables, connections, and battery box

covers when the engine is operated.

Stay clear of all rotating parts and of all moving parts.

Leave the guards in place until maintenance is

performed. After the maintenance is performed,

reinstall the guards.

Fire Extinguisher

Keep objects away from moving fan blades. The fan

blades will throw objects or cut objects.

Make sure that a fire extinguisher is available. Be

familiar with the operation of the fire extinguisher.

Inspect the fire extinguisher and service the fire

extinguisher regularly. Obey the recommendations on

the instruction plate.

When objects are struck, wear protective glasses in

order to avoid injury to the eyes.

Chips or other debris may fly off objects when objects

are struck. Before objects are struck, ensure that no

one will be injured by flying debris.

Lines, Tubes, and Hoses

Do not bend high-pressure lines. Do not strike high-

pressure lines. Do not install any lines that are

damaged.

Leaks can cause fires. Consult your Perkins  dealer

or your Perkins distributor for replacement parts.

Replace the parts if any of the following conditions

are present:

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

12

SEBU8609

Safety Section

Mounting and Dismounting

i04016709

i02157354

Mounting and Dismounting

Engine Starting

Do not climb on the engine or the engine

aftertreatment.The engine and aftertreatment have

not been designed with mounting or dismounting

locations.

Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as

ether. Such use  could result in an explosion and

personal injury.

Refer to the OEM for the location of foot and hand

holds for your specific application.

If a warning tag is attached to the engine start switch

or to the controls, DO NOTstart the engine or move

the controls. Consult with the person that attached

the warning tag before the engine is started.

i02813489

Before Starting Engine

All protective guards and all protective covers must

be installed if the engine must be started in order to

perform service procedures. To help prevent an

accident that is caused by parts in rotation, work

around the parts carefully.

Before the initial start-up of an engine that is new,

serviced or repaired, make provision to shut the

engine off, in order to stop an overspeed. This may

be accomplished by shutting off the air and/or fuel

supply to the engine.

Start the engine from the operator's compartment or

from the engine start switch.

Overspeed shutdown should occur automatically for

engines that are controlled electronically. If automatic

shutdown does not occur, press the emergency stop

button in order to cut the fuel and/or air to the engine.

Always start the engine according to the procedure

that is described in the Operation and Maintenance

Manual, “Engine Starting” topic in the Operation

Section. Knowing the correct procedure will help to

prevent major damage to the engine components.

Knowing the procedure will also help to prevent

personal injury.

Inspect the engine for potential hazards.

Before starting the engine, ensure that no one is on,

underneath, or close to the engine. Ensure that the

area is free of personnel.

To ensure that the jacket water heater (if equipped)

and/or the lube oil heater (if equipped) is working

correctly, check the water temperature gauge and the

oil temperature gauge during the heater operation.

If equipped, ensure that the lighting system for the

engine is suitable for the conditions. Ensure that all

lights work correctly, if equipped.

All protective guards and all protective covers must

be installed if the engine must be started in order to

perform service procedures. To help prevent an

accident that is caused by parts in rotation, work

around the parts carefully.

Engine exhaust contains products of combustion

which can be harmful to your health. Always start the

engine and operate the engine in a well ventilated

area. If the engine is started in an enclosed area, vent

the engine exhaust to the outside.

Do not bypass the automatic shutoff circuits. Do not

disable the automatic shutoff circuits. The circuits are

provided in order to help prevent personal injury. The

circuits are also provided in order to help prevent

engine damage.

Note: The engine is equipped with an automatic

device for cold starting for normal conditions of

operation. If the engine will be operated in very cold

conditions, then an extra cold starting aid may be

required. Normally, the engine will be equipped with

the correct type of starting aid for your region of

operation.

See the Service Manual for repairs and for

adjustments.

The 400 Series engines are equipped with a glow

plug starting aid in each individual cylinder that heats

the intake air in order to improve starting.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

SEBU8609

13

Safety Section

Engine Stopping

i02234873

Grounding Practices

Engine Stopping

Stop the engine according to the procedure in the

Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine

Stopping (Operation Section)” in order to avoid

overheating of the engine and accelerated wear of

the engine components.

Use the Emergency Stop Button (if equipped) ONLY

in an emergency situation. Do not use the Emergency

Stop Button for normal engine stopping. After an

emergency stop, DO NOTstart the engine until the

problem that caused the emergency stop has been

corrected.

Stop the engine if an overspeed condition occurs

during the initial start-up of a new engine or an engine

that has been overhauled.

To stop an electronically controlled engine, cut the

power to the engine and/or shutting off the air supply

to the engine.

Illustration 11

g02324975

Typical example

Ground to battery

i04047709

Electrical System

Never disconnect any charging unit circuit or battery

circuit cable from the battery when the charging unit is

operating. A spark can cause the combustible gases

that are produced by some batteries to ignite.

To help prevent sparks from igniting combustible

gases that are produced by some batteries, the

negative  “−” cable should be connected last from the

external power source to the primary position for

grounding.

Check the electrical wires daily for wires that are

loose or frayed. Tighten all loose electrical

connections before the engine is started. Repair all

frayed electrical wires before the engine is started.

See the Operation and Maintenance Manual for

specific starting instructions.

Illustration 12

g02324976

Typical example

Alternate ground to battery

Correct grounding for the engine electrical system is

necessary for optimum engine performance and

reliability. Incorrect grounding will result in

uncontrolled electrical circuit paths and in unreliable

electrical circuit paths.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

14

SEBU8609

Safety Section

Engine Electronics

Uncontrolled electrical circuit paths can result in

damage to the crankshaft bearing journal surfaces

and to aluminum components.

The Engine Monitoring package can vary for different

engine models and different engine applications.

However, the monitoring system and the engine

monitoring control will be similar for all engines.

Engines that are installed without engine-to-frame

ground straps can be damaged by electrical

discharge.

Note: Many of the engine control systems and

display modules that are available for Perkins

Engines  will work in unison with the Engine

Monitoring System. Together, the two controls will

provide the engine monitoring function for the specific

engine application. Refer to the Troubleshooting for

more information on the Engine Monitoring System.

To ensure that the engine and the engine electrical

systems function correctly, an engine-to-frame

ground strap with a direct path to the battery must be

used.  This path may be provided by way of a direct

engine ground to the frame.

The connections for the grounds should be tight and

free of corrosion. The engine alternator must be

grounded to the negative “-” battery terminal with a

wire that is adequate to handle the full charging

current of the alternator.

The power supply connections and the ground

connections for the engine electronics should always

be from the isolator to the battery.

i05181812

Engine Electronics

Tampering with the electronic system installation

or the OEM  wiring installation can be dangerous

and could result in personal injury or death and/or

engine damage.

This engine has a comprehensive, programmable

Engine Monitoring System. The Electronic Control

Module (ECM) has the ability to monitor the engine

operating conditions. If any of the engine parameters

extend outside an allowable range, the ECM will

initiate an immediate action.

The following actions are available for engine

monitoring control:

•   Warning

•   Derate

•   Shutdown

The following monitored engine operating conditions

and components have the ability to limit engine speed

and/or the engine power:

•   Oil Pressure Switch

•   Coolant Temperature Sensor

•   Engine Aftertreatment System

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

SEBU8609

15

,,

Product Information Section

Model View Illustrations

Product Information

Section

General Information

i05139695

Model View Illustrations

(Engines and Aftertreatment)

The following model views show typical features of

the engine. Due to individual applications, your

engine may appear different from the illustrations.

403F-15T

Illustration 13

g03246538

Typical example

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

16

SEBU8609

General Information

Model View Illustrations

404F-22

Illustration 14

g03246558

Typical example

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

SEBU8609

17

General Information

Model View Illustrations

404F-22T

Illustration 15

g03246676

(1) Top oil filler

(2) Fan

(3) Side oil filler

(4) Cylinder block drain plug

(5) Oil gauge (Dipstick)

(6) Rear oil drain plug

(7) Oil filter

(8) Electric fuel pump

(9) Secondary fuel filter

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

18

SEBU8609

General Information

Model View Illustrations

Illustration 16

g03246563

(10) Air intake

(14) Flywheel housing

(15) Starting motor

(16) Solenoid for starting motor

(17) Front oil drain plug

(18) NOx reduction system cooler

(19) Coolant outlet

(11) Turbocharger

(12) Aftertreatment system

(13) Flywheel

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

SEBU8609

19

General Information

Model View Illustrations

Illustration 17

g03249056

(20) Engine crankcase breather

(21) Rear lifting eye bracket

(22) Air pump

(23) Air pump drive belt

(24) Alternator

(25) Fan and alternator drive belt

(26) Coolant intake

(27) Water pump

(28) Front lifting eye

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

20

SEBU8609

General Information

Model View Illustrations

AftertreatmentSystem

Illustration 18

g03249241

(29) Aftertreatment Regeneration Device

(ARD), also known as the (Burner)

(30) Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC)

(31) Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF)

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

SEBU8609

21

General Information

Model View Illustrations

Off Engine Parts

Illustration 19

g03271819

(32) Electronic Control Unit (ECM)

(33) In line fuel filter

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

22

SEBU8609

General Information

Product Description

Engine with Low Mounted Air Pump

Illustration 20

g03321871

i05139813

The crankshaft for a three cylinder engine has four

main bearing journals. The crankshaft for a four

cylinder engine has five main bearing journals. End

play is controlled by the thrust washers that are

located on the rear main bearing.

Product Description

The 400F models are indirect injection engines. The

fuel injection pump is operated by a solenoid that is

controlled by a Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) signal

from the ECM.

The timing gears are stamped with timing marks in

order to ensure the correct assembly of the gears.

With the timing marks on the crankshaft gear

camshaft gear and the idler gear aligned No. 1 piston

will be at top center compression stroke.

The cylinder head assembly has one inlet valve and

one exhaust valve for each cylinder. Each cylinder

valve has a single valve spring.

The crankshaft gear turns the idler gear which then

turns the camshaft gear and the gear for the engine

oil pump.

The pistons have two compression rings and an oil

control ring. It is important to ensure the correct piston

height so that the piston does not contact the cylinder

head. The correct piston height also ensures efficient

combustion of fuel that is necessary in order to

conform to requirements for emissions.

The fuel injection pump is mounted in the cylinder

block. The fuel injection pump is operated by the

camshaft. The fuel pump is located on the right-hand

side of the cylinder block. The fuel pump is electrically

operated.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

SEBU8609

23

General Information

Product Description

The fuel injection pump conforms to requirements for

emissions. If any adjustments to the fuel injection

pump timing and high idle are required, you must

refer to your Perkins  distributor your Perkins  dealer.

(Table 1, contd)

Bore

84 mm (3.31 inch)

90 mm (3.54 inch)

Stroke

A gerotor oil pump is located in the center of the idler

gear. The engine oil pump sends lubricating oil to the

main oil gallery through a pressure relief valve and an

engine oil filter. The rocker arms receive pressurized

oil through an externally located oil line that runs from

the main oil gallery to the cylinder head.

Displacement

Aspiration

1.496 L (91.291 in

3

)

T(1)

Compression Ratio

Firing Order

22.5:1

1-2-3

Coolant from the bottom of the radiator passes

through the belt driven centrifugal water pump. The

coolant is cooled by the radiator and the temperature

is regulated by a water temperature regulator.

Rotation that is viewed from the

flywheel

Counterclockwise

Valve Lash Setting (Inlet)

Valve Lash Setting (Exhaust)

Injection

0.20 mm (0.008 inch)

0.20 mm (0.008 inch)

Indirect

Engine efficiency, efficiency of emission controls, and

engine performance depend on adherence to correct

operation and maintenance recommendations.

Engine performance and efficiency also depend on

the use of recommended fuels, lubrication oils, and

coolants. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance

Manual, “Maintenance Interval Schedule” for more

information on maintenance items.

(1)

Turbocharged

404F-22 Engine

Engine Specifications

Note: The front end of the engine is opposite the

flywheel end of the engine. The left and the right side

of the engine are determined from the flywheel end.

The No. 1 cylinder is the front cylinder.

403F-15T Engine

Illustration 22

g00296424

(A) Exhaust valves

(B) Inlet valves

Table 2

404F-22 Engine Specifications

Maximum Operating Speed

(rpm)

3000 rpm

Cylinders and Arrangement

Bore

In-Line 4 cylinder

84.0 mm (3.31 inch)

100.0 mm (3.94 inch)

Illustration 21

g00852304

(A) Exhaust valves

(B) Inlet valves

Stroke

Displacement

Aspiration

2.216 L (135.229 in

3

)

NA(1)

Table 1

403F-15T Engine Specifications

Compression Ratio

Firing Order

23.3:1

Maximum Operating Speed

(rpm)

2800 rpm

In-Line 3 cylinder

1-3-4-2

Cylinders and Arrangement

(continued)

(continued)

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

24

SEBU8609

General Information

Product Description

(Table 2, contd)

Electronic Engine Features

Rotation that is viewed from the

flywheel

The engine operating conditions are monitored. The

Electronic Control Module (ECM) controls the

response of the engine to these conditions and to the

demands of the operator. These conditions and

operator demands determine the precise control of

fuel injection by the ECM. The electronic engine

control system provides the following features:

Counterclockwise

Valve Lash Setting (Inlet)

Valve Lash Setting (Exhaust)

Injection

0.20 mm (0.008 inch)

0.20 mm (0.008 inch)

Indirect

(1)

Naturally Aspirated

•   Engine monitoring

404F-22T Engine

•   Engine speed governing

•   System diagnostics

•   AftertreatmentRegeneration

•   NOx reduction system control on the 404F-22T

engine

For more information on electronic engine features,

refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,

“Features and Controls” topic (Operation Section).

Engine Diagnostics

The engine has built-in diagnostics in order to ensure

that the engine systems are functioning correctly. The

operator will be alerted to the condition by a  “Stop or

Warning” lamp. Under certain conditions, the engine

horsepower and the vehicle speed may be limited.

The electronic service tool may be used to display the

diagnostic codes.

Illustration 23

g00296424

(A) Exhaust valves

(B) Inlet valves

Table 3

There are four types of diagnostic codes: active code,

logged code, active event and logged event.

404F-22T Engine Specifications

Maximum Operating Speed

(rpm)

Most of the diagnostic codes are logged and stored in

the ECM. For additional information, refer to the

Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine

Diagnostics” topic (Operation Section).

3000 rpm

Cylinders and Arrangement

Bore

In-Line 4 cylinder

84.0 mm (3.31 inch)

100.0 mm (3.94 inch)

The ECM provides an electronic governor that

controls the injector output in order to maintain the

desired engine rpm.

Stroke

Displacement

Aspiration

2.216 L (135.229 in

3

)

T(1)

Engine Service Life

Compression Ratio

Firing Order

23.5:1

Engine efficiency and maximum utilization of engine

performance depend on the adherence to proper

operation and maintenance recommendations. In

addition, use recommended fuels, coolants, and

lubricants. Use the Operation and Maintenance

Manual as a guide for required engine maintenance.

1-3-4-2

Rotation that is viewed from the

flywheel

Counterclockwise

Valve Lash Setting (Inlet)

Valve Lash Setting (Exhaust)

Injection

0.20 mm (0.008 inch)

0.20 mm (0.008 inch)

Indirect

Expected engine life is generally predicted by the

average power that is demanded. The average power

that is demanded is based on fuel consumption of the

engine over a period of time. Reduced hours of

operation at full throttle and/or operating at reduced

throttle settings result in a lower average power

demand. Reduced hours of operation will increase

the length of operating time before an engine

overhaul is required.

(1)

Turbocharged

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

SEBU8609

25

General Information

Product Description

Aftermarket Products and Perkins

Engines

Perkins  does not warrant the quality or performance

of non-Perkins fluids and filters.

When auxiliary devices, accessories, or consumables

(filters, additives, catalysts,) which are made by other

manufacturers are used on Perkins  products, the

Perkins  warranty is not affected simply because of

such use.

However, failures that result from the installation

or use of other manufacturers devices,

accessories, or consumables are NOT Perkins

defects. Therefore, the defects are NOTcovered

under the Perkins  warranty.

AftertreatmentSystem

The aftertreatment system is approved for use by

Perkins  . In order to be emission-compliant only the

approved Perkins  aftertreatmentsystem  must be

used on a Perkins  engine.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

26

SEBU8609

Product Identification Information

Plate Locations and Film Locations

Product Identification

Information

An example of an engine number is

ER*****U000001V.

ER

P

Engine family

Type of engine

i05140083

Plate Locations and Film

Locations

*****

The list number of the engine

Country of manufacture

U

0

The first digit is a production code.

Engine Serial Number

00001

V

Year of Manufacture

Perkins  dealers or Perkins  distributors need all of

these numbers in order to determine the components

that were included with the engine. This information

permits accurate identification of replacement part

numbers.

i05140229

Emissions CertificationFilm

Illustration 24

g02335396

Typical example

(1) serial number plate

Perkins engines are identified by a serial number.

This number is shown on a serial number plate. The

serial number plate is mounted above the fuel

injection pump on the right-hand side of the engine

block.

Illustration 26

g02269574

Typical example

Illustration 25

g01094203

The emissions label, refer to illustration 26  is

installed on the front cover of the engine.

Typical example

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

SEBU8609

27

Product Identification Information

Reference Information

Identifying Numbers on Aftertreatment

Illustration 27

g02052934

Perkins  will supply the fuel label with every engine,

refer to illustration 27 . The equipment manufacturer

must install the label to the equipment. The label must

be attached to the equipment near the inlet of the fuel

tank. This action will comply with the EPA regulations.

The equipment manufacturer may install another fuel

label . If another fuel label is used, the equipment

manufacturer must send a drawing or a photo of the

label to Perkins. This action will ensure compliance of

the label.

i05157330

Reference Information

Information for the following items may be needed to

order parts. Locate the information for your engine.

Record the information in the appropriate space.

Make a copy of this list for a record. Keep the

information for future reference.

Record for Reference

Engine Model

Engine Serial number

Engine rpm

In-Line fuel filter

Fuel Filter Element

Lubrication Oil Filter

Crankcase Breather Element

Total Lubrication System Capacity

Total Cooling System Capacity

Air Cleaner Element

Fan Belt

Belt for Air Pump

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

28

SEBU8609

Operation Section

Product Lifting

Operation Section

Lifting and Storage

Lifting eyes are designed and installed for specific

engine arrangements. Alterations to the lifting eyes

and/or the engine make the lifting eyes and the lifting

fixtures obsolete. If alterations are made, ensure that

correct lifting devices are provided. Consult your

Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for

information regarding fixtures for correct engine

lifting.

i05140249

Product Lifting

Lifting Eyes with Top Mounted

Aftertreatment

Illustration 29

g03321882

i04053009

(1) Front lifting eye

(2) Rear lifting eye

Product Storage

(Engine and Aftertreatment)

Illustration 28

g03274116

Typical example

(1) Front lifting eye

(2) Rear lifting eyes

Perkins  are not responsible for damage which may

occur when an engine is in storage after a period in

service.

Note: The engine assembly has three lifting eyes,

refer to illustration 28 .

Use a hoist to remove heavy components. Use an

adjustable lifting beam to lift the engine. All

supporting members (chains and cables) should be

parallel to each other. The chains and cables should

be perpendicular to the top of the object that is being

lifted.

Your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor can

assist in preparing the engine for extended storage

periods.

Condition for Storage

The engine must be stored in a water proof building.

The building must be kept at a constant temperature.

Engines that are filled with Perkins ELC will have

coolant protection to an ambient temperature of

−36° C (−32.8° F). The engine must not be subjected

to extreme variations in temperature and humidity.

To remove the engine ONLY, use the lifting eyes that

are on the engine.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

SEBU8609

29

Lifting and Storage

Product Storage

Storage Period

Aftertreatment

No special procedures are required. The exhaust

outlet of the aftertreatment should be capped. Before

storing, the engine and the aftertreatment must be

enclosed in a cover.

An engine can be stored for up to 6 months provided

all the recommendation are adhered to.

Storage Procedure

Monthly Checks

Keep a record of the procedure that has been

completed on the engine.

The crankshaft must be rotated in order to change the

spring loading on the valve train. Rotate the

crankshaft more than 180 degrees. Visibly check for

damage or corrosion to the engine and

aftertreatment.

Note: Do not store an engine that has biodiesel in the

fuel system.

1. Ensure that the engine is clean and dry.

Ensure that the engine and aftertreatment are

covered completely before storage. Log the

procedure in the record for the engine.

a.

b.

If the engine has been operated using

biodiesel, the system must be drained and

new filters installed. The fuel tank will require

flushing.

Fill the fuel system with an ultra low sulfur fuel.

For more information on acceptable fuels refer

to this Operation and Maintenance Manual,

“Fluid recommendations”. Operate the engine

for 15 minutes in order to remove all biodiesel

from the system.

2. Drain any water from the primary filter water

separator. Ensure that the fuel tank is full.

3. The engine oil will not need to be drained in order

to store the engine. Provided the correct

specification of engine oil is used the engine can

be stored for up to 6 months. For the correct

specification of engine oil refer to this Operation

and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid

recommendations”.

4. Remove the drive belts from the engine.

Sealed Coolant System

Ensure that the cooling system is filled with Perkins

ELC, or an antifreeze that meets ASTM D6210

specification.

Open Cooling System

Ensure that all cooling drain plugs have been

opened. Allow the coolant to drain. Install the drain

plugs. Place a vapor phase inhibitor into the system.

The coolant system must be sealed once the vapor

phase inhibitor has been introduced. The effect of the

vapor phase inhibitor will be lost if the cooling system

is open to the atmosphere.

For maintenance procedures ref to this Operation and

Maintenance Manual.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

30

SEBU8609

Features and Controls

Alarms and Shutoffs

Features and Controls

Coolant temperature – The coolant temperature

sensor indicates high jacket water coolant

temperature.

i05142391

Engine oil pressure – The engine oil pressure

sensor or switch, indicates when oil pressure drops

below rated system pressure, at a set engine speed.

Alarms and Shutoffs

Boost pressure (Intake manifold pressure – The

intake manifold pressure sensor checks the rated

pressure in the engine manifold.

•   ECM

•   DOC

•   DPF

•   ARD

Electronic Control Module

Diesel Oxidation Catalyst

Intake manifold air temperature – The intake

manifold air temperature sensor indicates high intake

air temperature.

Diesel Particulate Filter

Aftertreatment Regeneration Device

Atmospheric pressure – The atmospheric pressure

sensor checks the air pressure in the location that the

engine is operating.

Shutoffs

The shutoffs are electrically operated or mechanically

operated. The electrically operated shutoffs are

controlled by the ECM.

AftertreatmentAlarms

DOC inlet temperature – The inlet temperature

sensor checks the operating temperature.

Shutoffs are set at critical levels for the following

items:

DPF inlet temperature – The inlet temperature

sensor checks the operating temperature.

•   Operating temperature

•   Operating RPM

DPF outlet temperature – The outlet temperature

sensor checks the operating temperature.

•   Overspeed

Delta P sensor (Differentialpressure) – The sensor

checks the differential pressure within the system.

•   Aftertreatment regeneration

The particular shutoff may need to be reset before the

engine will start.

ARD temperature – The sensor checks the

temperature within the burner in the ARD system

NOTICE

Testing

Always determine the cause of the engine shutdown.

Make necessary  repairs before attempting to  restart

the engine.

Turning the keyswitch to the ON position will check

the indicator lights on the control panel. All the

indicator lights will be illuminated for 2 seconds after

the keyswitch is operated. Replace suspect bulbs

immediately.

Be familiar with the following items:

•   Types and locations of shutoff

If any lamps stay illuminated or flashes, the fault must

be investigated immediately. The fault will create a

diagnostic code.

•   Conditions which cause each shutoff to function

•   The resetting procedure that is required to restart

the engine

Refer to Troubleshooting, “Diagnostic Trouble Code”

for more information.

Alarms

i05140291

The alarms are electrically operated. The operations

of the alarms are controlled by the ECM.

Gauges and Indicators

The alarm is operated by a sensor or by a switch.

When the sensor or the switch is activated, a signal is

sent to the ECM. An event code is created by the

ECM. The ECM will send a signal in order to

illuminate the lamp. Some application may have a

display panel in order to alert the operator.

Your engine may not have the same gauges or all of

the gauges that are described. For more information

about the gauge package, see the OEM information.

Your engine may be equipped with the following

sensors or switches:

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

SEBU8609

31

Features and Controls

Gauges and Indicators

Gauges provide indications of engine performance.

Ensure that the gauges are in good working order.

Determine the normal operating range by observing

the gauges over a period of time.

Tachometer – This gauge indicates

engine speed (rpm). When the throttle

control lever is moved to the full throttle

position without load, the engine is running at

high idle. The engine is running at the full load

rpm when the throttle control lever is at the full

throttle position with maximum rated load.

Noticeable changes in gauge readings indicate

potential gauge or engine problems. Problems may

also be indicated by gauge readings that change

even if the readings are within specifications.

Determine and correct the cause of any significant

change in the readings. Consult your Perkins dealer

or your Perkins  distributor for assistance.

NOTICE

To  help prevent  engine damage,  never exceed  the

high  idle  rpm. Overspeeding  can  result  in  serious

damage to the engine. The engine can be operated at

high  idle without  damage,  but should  never  be al-

lowed to exceed high idle rpm.

NOTICE

If no  oil pressure  is  indicated, STOP  the engine.  If

maximum  coolant temperature  is  exceeded,  STOP

the engine. Engine damage can result.

Ammeter – This gauge indicates the

amount of charge or discharge in the

Engine Oil Pressure – The oil pressure

should be greatest after a cold engine is

started. The typical engine oil pressure

with SAE10W30 is 207 to 413 kPa  (30 to 60 psi) at

rated rpm.

battery charging circuit. Operation of the

indicator should be to the right side of  “0”  (zero).

Fuel Level – This gauge indicates the

fuel level in the fuel tank. The fuel level

gauge operates when the “START/

A lower oil pressure is normal at low idle. If the load is

stable and the gauge reading changes, perform the

following procedure:

STOP”  switch is in the “ON”  position.

Service Hour Meter – The gauge

indicates operating time of the engine.

1. Remove the load.

Indicators and Lamps

•   Shutdown lamp

2. Reduce engine speed to low idle.

3. Check and maintain the oil level.

•   Warning lamp

Jacket Water Coolant Temperature –

Typical temperature range is 71 to 96°C

(160 to 205°F). The maximum allowable

temperature with the pressurized cooling system

at 90 kPa (13 psi) is 125° C (257° F). Higher

temperatures may occur under certain

conditions. The water temperature reading may

vary according to load. The reading should never

exceed the boiling point for the pressurized

system that is being used.

•   Low-pressure oil lamp

For more information on indicator lamps refer to this

Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Monitoring

System (Table for Indicators Lamps)”. All lamps will

be illuminated for 2 seconds in order to check that the

lamps are functioning when the keyswitch is turned to

the ON position. Any lamp that fails to illuminate

during the first 2 second must be replaced. If any of

the lamps stay illuminated, the reason must be

investigated immediately.

If the engine is operating above the normal range and

steam becomes apparent, perform the following

procedure:

AftertreatmentLamps

There are three aftertreatment lamps.

•   Regeneration Active Lamp

1. Reduce the load and the engine rpm.

2. Inspect the cooling system for leaks.

•   Regeneration Disabled Lamp

•   Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) Lamp

3. Determine if the engine must be shut down

immediately or if the engine can be cooled by

reducing the load.

For information on the aftertreatmentlamps and

warning lamps refer to this Operation and

Maintenance Manual, “Diesel Particulate Filter

Regeneration”

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

32

SEBU8609

Features and Controls

Monitoring System

i05182480

“Warning”

Monitoring System

The orange “Warning”  lamp will turn “ON”  and the

warning signal is activated continuously in order to

alert the operator that one or more of the engine

parameters is not within normal operating range.

“Derate”

If the Shutdown mode has been selected and  the

warning  indicator   activates,  engine   shutdown

may take as little as 20 seconds from the time the

warning indicator is  activated. Depending on the

application, special precautions  should be taken

to avoid  personal  injury. The  engine can  be  re-

started  following shutdown  for  emergency  ma-

neuvers, if necessary.

The orange “Warning”  lamp will be “Flashing” . After

the warning, the engine power will be derated. The

warning lamp will begin to flash when the derating

occurs.

The engine will be derated if the engine exceeds

preset operational limits. The engine derate is

achieved by restricting the amount of fuel that is

available for each injection. The amount of this

reduction of fuel is dependent on the severity of the

fault that has caused the engine derate, typically up

to a limit of 50%. This reduction in fuel results in a

predetermined reduction in engine power.

NOTICE

The  Engine Monitoring  System  is not  a  guarantee

against  catastrophic   failures.  Programmed  delays

and derate schedules are designed to minimize false

alarms and provide  time for the operator to  stop the

engine.

“Shutdown”

The orange warning will be “Flashing” . After the

warning, the engine power will be derated. The

engine will continue at the rpm of the set derate until a

shutdown of the engine occurs. After shutdown the

red stop lamp will illuminate. The engine can be

restarted after a shutdown for use in an emergency.

The following parameters are monitored:

•   Coolant temperature

•   Intake manifold air pressure

•   Oil pressure

A shutdown of the engine after been triggered is

immediate. The engine can be restarted after a

shutdown for use in an emergency. However, the

cause of the initial shutdown may still exist.

•   Engine speed/timing

If there is a signal for high coolant temperature, there

will be a 2 second delay in order to verify the

condition.

•   Atmospheric pressure (Barometric pressure) if

equipped

•   The amount of soot in the Diesel particulate filter

If there is a signal for low oil pressure, there will be a

2 second delay in order to verify the condition.

Battery voltage

For information on the operation of the warning lamps

and the shutdown lamp, refer to this Operation and

Maintenance Manual, “Monitoring System (Table for

Indicator Lamps)”. For each of the programmed

modes, refer to Troubleshooting Guide, “Indicator

Lamps” for more information on Indicator Lamps.

Programmable Options and

Systems Operation

For more information or assistance for repairs,

consult your Perkins  dealer or your Perkins

distributor.

If the  Warning/Derate/Shutdown mode  has  been

selected  and   the  warning   indicator  activates,

bring the engine to a stop whenever possible. De-

pending on  the  application, special  precautions

should be taken to avoid personal injury.

The engine can be programmed to the following

modes:

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

SEBU8609

33

Features and Controls

Monitoring System

i05113371

Monitoring System

(Engine Warning Indicators)

Table 4

Table for Warning Indicators

Warning Indicator

Shutdown

Indicator

Indicator State

Description of the

Indication

Engine Status

Operator Action

ON

ON

Indicator Check

Keyswitch in the ON posi-   Power ON, Indicator    If any of the Indicators will

tion all Indicators should il- check

not illuminate during the

Indicator check, the fault

must be investigated

immediately.

luminate for 2 seconds.

Engine is not

The aftertreatment Indicatorswill also

be checked during Indicator check.

operating.

If any Indicator stay illumi-

nated or flash, the fault

must be investigated

immediately.

OFF

OFF

OFF

No Fault

Level 1

-

Engine operating

normally.

None

Level 1

ON (Solid)

An active diagnostic code   The engine is operat-   As soon as possible the

is present.

ing, but one or more

diagnostic codes are

present.

diagnostic code should be

investigated.

Level 2

Flashing

Flashing

OFF

ON

Level 2

Level 3

The ECM has detected an  If enabled, the engine  Stop the engine.

abnormal condition.

will be derated.

Investigate the fault.

Level 3

Engine condition is

abnormal.

The engine will auto-   Stop engine immediately.

matically shut down.    Investigate the fault.

If shut down is not en-

abled, the engine can

operate until damage

is coursed.

i05182498

i05142078

Overspeed

Sensors and Electrical

Components

(Engine and Aftertreatment)

•   403F-15T

•   404F-22

•   404F-22T

3000 RPM

3000 RPM

3000 RPM

•   ARD

•   DOC

•   DPF

•   ECM

•   NRS

Aftertreatment Regeneration Devise

Diesel Oxidation Catalyst

Diesel Particulate Filter

The overspeed is plus 700 RPM above the given

speed for engines shown.

Electronic Control Module

NOx Reduction System

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

34

SEBU8609

Features and Controls

Sensors and Electrical Components

Illustration 30

g03276099

(1) Inlet air temperature sensor

(2) Oil pressure switch

(4) Fuel rack solenoid and position sensor

(5) Glow plugs

(7) Fuel pump/Primingpump

(3) Secondary speed sensor

(6) Resistor for ARD glow plug

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

SEBU8609

35

Features and Controls

Sensors and Electrical Components

Illustration 31

g03276102

(8) Air pump

(9) Coolant temperature sensor

(10) Alternator

(11) Primary speed sensor

(12) Inlet manifold air pressure sensor

(13) NRS control valve

(14) Solenoid for starting motor

(15) Starting motor

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

36

SEBU8609

Features and Controls

Sensors and Electrical Components

Illustration 32

g03279116

(16) ARD glow plug

(17) DPF pressure differential sensor

(18) ARD injectors

(19) ARD temperature sensor

(20) DOC intake temperaturesensor

(21) DPF intake temperature sensor

(22) DPF outlet temperaturesensor

(23) ECM

The ECM is remotely mounted. The position of ECM

will depend upon the application.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

SEBU8609

37

Features and Controls

Sensors and Electrical Components

Illustration 33

g03279862

(1) Inlet air temperature

(2) Oil pressure switch

(3) Secondary speed sensor

(4) Fuel rack solenoid and position sensor

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

38

SEBU8609

Features and Controls

Sensors and Electrical Components

Illustration 34

g03280057

(5) Glow plugs

(6) Resistor for ARD glow plug

(7) Fuel pump/Primingpump

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

SEBU8609

39

Features and Controls

Sensors and Electrical Components

Illustration 35

g03299376

(8) Air pump

(10) Alternator

(9) Coolant temperature sensor

(11) Primary speed sensor

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


,

 

40

SEBU8609

Features and Controls

Sensors and Electrical Components

Illustration 36

g03299456

(12) Inlet manifold air pressure sensor

(13) NRS control valve

(14) Solenoid for starting motor

(15) Starting motor

(16) ARD glow plug

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

SEBU8609

41

Features and Controls

Sensors and Electrical Components

Illustration 37

g03299640

(17) DPF pressure differential sensor

(18) ARD injector 1

(18 A) ARD injector 2

(19) ARD temperature sensor

(19 A) Alterative position for the ARD

temperature sensor

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

42

SEBU8609

Features and Controls

Sensors and Electrical Components

Illustration 38

g03299676

(20) DOC intake temperature sensor

(21) DPF intake temperaturesensor

(22) DPF outlet temperature sensor

(23) ECM

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

SEBU8609

43

Engine Diagnostics

Self-Diagnostics

Engine Diagnostics

i05142509

Fault Logging

i04053178

Self-Diagnostics

The system provides the capability of Fault Logging.

When the Electronic Control Module (ECM)

generates an active diagnostic code, the code will be

logged in the memory of the ECM. The codes that

have been logged by the ECM can be identified by

the electronic service tool. The active codes that have

been logged will be cleared when the fault has been

rectified or the fault is no longer active.

Perkins  electronic engines have the capability to

perform a self-diagnostics test. When the system

detects an active problem, a diagnostic lamp is

activated. Diagnostic codes will be stored in

permanent memory in the Electronic Control Module

(ECM). The diagnostic codes can be retrieved by

using the electronic service tool. Refer to

Troubleshooting, “Electronic Service Tools” for further

information.

i05182507

Engine Operation with Active

Diagnostic Codes

Some installations have electronic displays that

provide direct readouts of the engine diagnostic

codes. Refer to the manual that is provided by the

OEM for more information on retrieving engine

diagnostic codes. Alternatively refer to

Troubleshooting, “Indicator Lamps” for further

information.

If a diagnostic lamp illuminates during normal engine

operation, the system has identified a situation that is

not within the specification. Use electronic service

tools to check the active diagnostic codes.

Active codes represent problems that currently exist.

These problems should be investigated first.

Note: The power will be limited until the problem is

corrected. If the oil pressure is within the normal

range, the engine may be operated at the rated

speed and load. However, maintenance should be

performed as soon as possible.

Logged codes represent the following items:

•   Intermittent problems

•   Recorded events

The active diagnostic code should be investigated.

The cause of the problem should be corrected as

soon as possible. If the cause of the active diagnostic

code is repaired and there is only one active

•   Performance history

The problems may have been repaired since the

logging of the code. These codes do not indicate that

a repair is needed. The codes are guides or signals

when a situation exists. Codes may be helpful to

troubleshoot problems.

diagnostic code, the diagnostic lamp will turn off.

Operation of the engine and performance of the

engine can be limited as a result of the active

diagnostic code that is generated. Acceleration rates

may be significantly slower . Refer to the

Troubleshooting Guide for more information on the

relationship between these active diagnostic codes

and engine performance.

When the problems have been corrected, the

corresponding logged fault codes should be cleared.

i04053182

Diagnostic Lamp

i04053849

Engine Operation with

A diagnostic lamp is used to indicate the existence of

an active fault. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Indicator

Lamps” for more information. A fault diagnostic code

will remain active until the problem is repaired. The

diagnostic code may be retrieved by using the

electronic service tool. Refer to Troubleshooting,

“Electronic Service Tools” for more information.

IntermittentDiagnostic Codes

If a diagnostic lamp illuminates during normal engine

operation and the diagnostic lamp shuts off, an

intermittent fault may have occurred. If a fault has

occurred, the fault will be logged into the memory of

the Electronic Control Module (ECM).

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

44

SEBU8609

Engine Diagnostics

Configuration Parameters

In most cases, stopping the engine will not be

necessary because of an intermittent code. However,

the operator should retrieve the logged fault codes

and the operator should reference the appropriate

information. in order to identify the nature of the

event. The operator should log any observation that

could have caused the lamp to light.

•   Low power

•   Limits of the engine speed

•   Engine vibration or engine noise

This information can be useful to help troubleshoot

the situation. The information can also be used for

future reference. For more information on diagnostic

codes, refer to the Troubleshooting Guide for this

engine.

i05142533

Configuration Parameters

System configuration parameters affect the emissions

of the engine or the power of the engine. System

configuration parameters are programmed at the

factory. Normally, system configuration parameters

would never change through the life of the engine.

System configuration parameters must be

reprogrammed if an Electronic Control Module (ECM)

is replaced. System configuration parameters are not

reprogrammed if the ECM software is changed.

For more information, refer to Troubleshooting,

“System Configuration Parameters”.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

SEBU8609

45

Engine Starting

Before Starting Engine

Engine Starting

Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as

ether. Such use  could result in an explosion and

personal injury.

i04053911

Before Starting Engine

The ability to start the engine will be improved at

temperatures below −18 °C (0 °F) from the use of a

jacket water heater or extra battery capacity.

Perform the required daily maintenance and other

periodic maintenance before the engine is started.

Inspect the engine compartment. This inspection can

help prevent major repairs at a later date. Refer to the

Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance

Interval Schedule” for more information.

When Group 2 diesel fuel is used, the following items

provide a means of minimizing starting problems and

fuel problems in cold weather: Engine oil pan heaters,

jacket water heaters, fuel heaters and fuel line

insulation.

•   Ensure that the engine has an adequate fuel

supply.

Use the procedure that follows for cold weather

starting.

•   Open the fuel supply valve (if equipped).

Note: Do not adjust the engine speed control during

start-up. The electronic control module (ECM) will

control the engine speed during start-up.

If the engine has not been started for several weeks,

fuel may have drained from the fuel system. Air may

have entered the filter housing. Also, when fuel filters

have been changed, some air pockets will be trapped

in the engine. In these instances, prime the fuel

system. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance

Manual, “Fuel System - Prime” for more information

on priming the fuel system. Also, check that the fuel

specification is correct and that the fuel condition  is

correct. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance

Manual, “Fuel Recommendations”.

1. Disengage any driven equipment.

Note: During key ON, the indicator lamps will be

illuminated for 2 seconds in order to check the lamp

operation. If any of the indicator lamps do not

illuminate check the bulb. If any indicator lamps stay

illuminated or flash, refer to Troubleshooting,

“Indicator Lamp Circuit - Test”.

2. Turn the keyswitch to the RUN position. Leave the

keyswitch in the RUN position until the warning

light for the glow plugs is extinguished.

Engine exhaust contains products of combustion

which may be harmful to your health. Always start

and operate  the engine  in a well  ventilated area

and, if in an enclosed area, vent the exhaust to the

outside.

3. When the warning light for the glow plugs is

extinguished, turn the keyswitch to the START

position in order to engage the electric starting

motor and crank the engine.

•   Do not start the engine or move any of the controls

if there is a “DO NOT OPERATE” warning tag or

similar warning tag attached to the start switch or

to the controls.

Note: The operating period of the warning light for the

glow plugs will change due to the ambient air

temperature.

•   Reset all of the shutoffs or alarm components.

NOTICE

Do not  engage the  starting motor  when flywheel  is

turning. Do not start the engine under load.

•   Ensure that any driven equipment has been

disengaged. Minimize electrical loads or remove

any electrical loads.

If the engine fails  to start within 30 seconds, release

the starter switch or button and wait two minutes to al-

low  the starting  motor to  cool  before attempting  to

start the engine again.

i05144913

Cold Weather Starting

4. Allow the keyswitch to return to the RUN position

after the engine starts.

S/N:  EL11–Up

S/N:  EN11–Up

5. Repeat step 2 through step 4 if the engine fails to

start.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

46

SEBU8609

Engine Starting

Starting the Engine

Note: The engine should not be “raced” in order to

speed up the warm-up process.

NOTICE

Do not  engage the  starting motor  when flywheel  is

turning. Do not start the engine under load.

6. Allow the engine to idle for 3 to 5 minutes, or allow

the engine to idle until the water temperature

indicator begins to rise. When idling after the

engine has started in cold weather, increase the

engine rpm from 1000 to 1200 rpm. This operation

will warm up the engine more quickly. Maintaining

an elevated low idle speed for extended periods

will be easier with the installation of a hand throttle.

Allow the white smoke to disperse before

If the engine fails  to start within 30 seconds, release

the starter switch or button and wait two minutes to al-

low  the starting  motor to  cool  before attempting  to

start the engine again.

4. Allow the keyswitch to return to the RUN position

after the engine starts.

proceeding with normal operation.

5. Repeat step 2 through step 4 if the engine fails to

7. Operate the engine at low load until all systems

reach operating temperature. Check the gauges

during the warm-up period.

start.

i03663103

Starting with Jump Start

Cables

i05142649

Starting the Engine

Improper jump start cable connections can cause

an explosion resulting in personal injury.

Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as

ether. Such use  could result in an explosion and

personal injury.

Prevent sparks  near the  batteries. Sparks  could

cause vapors to explode. Do not allow jump start

cable ends to contact each other or the engine.

Note: Do not adjust the engine speed control during

start-up. The electronic control module (ECM) will

control the engine speed during start-up.

Note: If it is possible, first diagnose the reason for the

starting failure. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Engine Will

Not Crank and Engine Cranks But Will Not Start” for

further information. Make any necessary repairs. If

the engine will not start only due to the condition of

the battery, either charge the battery, or start the

engine by using another battery with jump start

cables.

Starting the Engine

1. Disengage any equipment that is driven by the

engine.

Note: During key ON, the indicator lamps will be

illuminated for 2 seconds in order to check the lamp

operation. If any of the indicator lamps do not

illuminate check the bulb. If any indicator lamps stay

illuminated or flash, refer to Troubleshooting,

“Indicator Lamp Circuit - Test”.

2. Turn the keyswitch to the RUN position. Leave the

keyswitch in the RUN position until the warning

light for the glow plugs is extinguished.

The condition of the battery can be rechecked after

the engine has been switched OFF.

NOTICE

Using a battery source with  the same voltage as the

electric starting  motor. Use  ONLY equal  voltage for

jump starting. The use of higher  voltage will damage

the electrical system.

Do not reverse the battery cables. The alternator can

be damaged.  Attach ground  cable last  and remove

first.

3. When the warning light for the glow plugs has been

extinguished turn the keyswitch to the START

position. The starter motor will then crank the

engine.

Turn all  electrical accessories OFF  before attaching

the jump start cables.

Ensure that the main power switch is in the OFF posi-

tion before attaching the jump start cables  to the en-

gine being started.

Note: The operating period of the warning light for the

glow plugs will change due to the ambient air

temperature.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

SEBU8609

47

Engine Starting

After Starting Engine

1. Turn the start switch on the stalled engine to the

OFF position. Turn off all the engine's accessories.

Note: Gauge readings should be observed and the

data should be recorded frequently while the engine

is operating. Comparing the data over time will help to

determine normal readings for each gauge.

Comparing data over time will also help detect

abnormal operating developments. Significant

changes in the readings should be investigated.

2. Connect one positive end of the jump start cable to

the positive cable terminal of the discharged

battery. Connect the other positive end of the jump

start cable to the positive cable terminal of the

electrical source.

3. Connect one negative end of the jump start cable

to the negative cable terminal of the electrical

source. Connect the other negative end of the

jump start cable to the engine block or to the

chassis ground. This procedure helps to prevent

potential sparks from igniting the combustible

gases that are produced by some batteries.

Note: The engine ECM must be powered before the

starting motor is operated or damage can occur.

4. Start the engine in the normal operating procedure.

Refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual,

“Starting the Engine”.

5. Immediately after the engine is started, disconnect

the jump start cables in reverse order.

After jump starting, the alternator may not be able to

fully recharge batteries that are severely discharged.

The batteries must be replaced or charged to the

proper voltage with a battery charger after the engine

is stopped. Many batteries which are considered

unusable are still rechargeable. Refer to Operation

and Maintenance Manual, “Battery - Replace” and

Testing and Adjusting Manual, “Battery - Test”.

i01903609

After Starting Engine

Note: In temperatures from 0 to 60°C  (32 to 140°F),

the warm-up time is approximately three minutes. In

temperatures below 0°C (32°F), additional warm-up

time may be required.

When the engine idles during warm-up, observe the

following conditions:

•   Check for any fluid or for any air leaks at idle rpm

and at one-half full rpm (no load on the engine)

before operating the engine under load. This is not

possible in some applications.

•   Operate the engine at low idle until all systems

achieve operating temperatures. Check all gauges

during the warm-up period.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

48

SEBU8609

Engine Operation

Engine Operation

Engine Operation

The operator will receive information on the status of

the ARD from dash lamps and the driver will be able

to request a regeneration by using a switch. Refer to

this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Monitoring

System” for more information.

i05182510

Engine Operation

Engine Operation and Active

Regeneration

Proper operation and maintenance are key factors in

obtaining the maximum life and economy of the

engine. If the directions in the Operation and

Active regeneration can be performed at any engine

speed.

Maintenance Manual are followed, costs can be

minimized and engine service life can be maximized.

i05145051

The time that is needed for the engine to reach

normal operating temperature can be less than the

time taken for a walk-around inspection of the engine.

Diesel Particulate Filter

Regeneration

The engine can be operated at the rated rpm after the

engine is started and after the engine reaches

operating temperature. The engine will reach normal

operating temperature sooner during a low engine

speed (rpm) and during a low-power demand. This

procedure is more effective than idling the engine at

no load. The engine should reach operating

temperature in a few minutes.

Regeneration

Regeneration is the removal of soot from the Diesel

Particulate Filter (DPF). The Aftertreatment

Regeneration Device (ARD) is used to regenerate the

DPF. The DPF traps both soot and ash. The ash is

removed through a manual cleaning process. Refer

to Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Diesel

Particulate Filter - Clean” for more information on the

service of the DPF.

Avoid excess idling. Excessive idling causes carbon

buildup, engine slobber and soot loading of the

Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF). This excess idling is

harmful to the engine.

Gauge readings should be observed and the data

should be recorded frequently while the engine is

operating. Comparing the data over time will help to

determine normal readings for each gauge.

Comparing data over time will also help detect

abnormal operating developments. Significant

changes in the readings should be investigated.

Types of Regeneration

Passive Regeneration – The engine conditions are

sufficient for regeneration. The rate of regeneration is

much lower than active regeneration.

Active Regeneration – The engine duty cycle

conditions are not sufficient for passive regeneration

to occur.

Reduction of Particulate Emissions

The Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and the

AftertreatmentRegeneration Device (ARD) work

together in order to reduce particulate emissions. The

DPF collects the soot and any ash that is produced

by the combustion in the engine. During regeneration,

the soot is converted into a gas which is released into

the atmosphere. The Ash remains in the DPF until the

ash is cleaned out of the DPF.

Regeneration Indicators

Five Indicators can be affected by the DPF

regeneration.

Note: Amber or yellow Warning Indicator can be use

as a diagnostic Indicator. For more information refer

to this Operation and Maintenance Manual,

“Diagnostic Lamp”.

The temperature of the DPF must be above a

particular value in order for regeneration to occur. The

exhaust gas provides heat for the regeneration

process. There are two types of regeneration:

Regeneration Active – The Indicator is

illuminated during active regeneration.

The Indicator will stay on until the

aftertreatmenthas cooled.

Passive Regeneration – The engine conditions are

sufficient for regeneration. The rate of regeneration is

much lower than active regeneration.

DPF  – This Indicator provides a general

indication of the soot load. The Indicator

is off when the soot load is normal.

Active Regeneration – The engine duty cycle

conditions are not sufficient for passive regeneration

to occur.

Note: If the Indicator is illuminated, a regeneration will

be required.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

SEBU8609

49

Engine Operation

Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration

Regeneration Disable – This Indicator is

illuminated whenever the disable switch

is activated or the system has been

•   Refer to OEM for the applications interlocks

required to be engaged before regeneration can

take place.

disabled by the engine ECM.

Forced regeneration – A forced regeneration is

initiated by pressing the regeneration switch.

Amber or yellow Warning – This

Indicator, indicates that the soot load

has increased. Regeneration is required.

Also, the DPF Indicator will be illuminated. A

flashing indicator will cause an engine derate.

Soot Level Monitoringand

Indicators

Red Stop – This Indicator, indicates that

the soot load is extremely high. The soot

load is at level 3. The DPF Indicator will

be illuminated and the amber warning indicator

will be flashing. The engine will be shut down.

Note: In operation an Indicator can have two states,

on solid and flashing. The sequence is to give a

visual indication of the importance of the warning.

Some application may also have an audible warning

installed.

Regeneration Switch

Ensure that the engine maintenance is carried out at

the correct intervals. A lack of maintenance can result

in illumination of the warning Indicators. For the

correct intervals of maintenance, refer to the

Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance

Interval Schedule”.

The regeneration switch has three position force

regeneration, automatic regeneration, and disable

regeneration.

Note: Some OEMs may have other means of

activating a forced regeneration such as touch screen

interface.

Note: The MIDDLE position of the regeneration

switch is the default position for automatic mode of

regeneration.

Force Regeneration – Press in the top of

the switch for 2 seconds in order to

begin regeneration. An indicator light on

the switch will become active showing that the

regeneration is active. The regeneration active

Indicator will become active showing that the

regeneration is active.

Disable Regeneration – Press in the

bottom of the switch for 2 seconds in

order to disable regeneration. An

indicator light on the switch will become active.

The disable indicator will illuminate.

Note: To re-enable the regeneration, cycle the engine

start switch key or press and hold down the force

regeneration switch for 2 seconds.

Modes of Regeneration

•   Automatic

•   Forced Regeneration

Automatic regeneration is controlled by the engine

ECM.

Automatic – Automatic regeneration allows for the

DPF regeneration to start automatically with up to 80

percent load on the engine. In order for an automatic

regeneration to occur, the following conditions must

be met:

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

50

SEBU8609

Engine Operation

Fuel Conservation Practices

Table 5

Indicator Operation

Aftertreatment

Indicator

Aftertreatment Indi-   Warning Indicator    Warning Indicator Description

cator State

State

Action Required

All indicators are checked at key on. Any indicator illuminate after 2 seconds must be investigated. Any indicator that has not illuminated must be

investigated.

OFF

OFF

OFF

OFF

Normal operation

None

During passive regeneration NO indicators will be illuminated.

Regeneration active

ON

OFF

OFF

The indicator shows that

elevated emission tem-

peratures are possible.

The indicator will stay illu-

minated during

None

regeneration.

Regeneration active

DPF

ON

ON

OFF

OFF

OFF

Active regeneration occurring

OFF

Level 1

OFF

DPF

DPF

ON

OFF

Indication of soot loading  An active regeneration

required

Level 2

ON solid

Amber Indicator

Flashing

Soot loading has

increased

Perform a forced regenera-

tion, or a service regenera-

tion will be required.

Level 3

DPF

ON solid

Amber Indicator

Stop indicator

Flashing

The flashing warning indi- A forced regenerationis

cator will indicate that the required.

engine has continued to   Hold the forced regenera-

On solid

be operated

tion switch for 10 seconds

The STOP warning indi-   before a regeneration be-

cator will indicate that the gins. If Regeneration can-

engine will be derated

and will be shut down.

After 30 seconds the en-

gine will automatically

shut down. The engine

can be restarted but will

only run for 30 seconds

before shutting down

again.

not occur, contact your

Perkins dealer or distributor

i04018232

Fuel expands when the fuel is warmed up. The fuel

may overflow from the fuel tank. Inspect fuel lines for

leaks. Repair the fuel lines, as needed.

Fuel ConservationPractices

•   Be aware of the properties of the different fuels.

Use only the recommended fuels. Refer to the

Operations and Maintenance Manual, “Fuel

Recommendations”for further information.

The efficiency of the engine can affect the fuel

economy. Perkins  design and technology in

manufacturing provides maximum fuel efficiency in all

applications. Follow the recommended procedures in

order to attain optimum performance for the life of the

engine.

•   Avoid unnecessary idling.

Shut off the engine rather than idle for long periods of

time.

•   Avoid spilling fuel.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

SEBU8609

51

Engine Operation

Fuel Conservation Practices

•   Observe the service indicator frequently. Keep the

air cleaner elements clean.

•   Ensure that the turbocharger is operating correctly.

For more information refer to this Operation and

Maintenance Manual, “Turbocharger - Inspect”

•   Maintain a good electrical system.

One faulty battery cell will overwork the alternator.

This fault will consume excess power and excess

fuel.

•   The belt should be in good condition. Refer to the

Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting, “V-Belt

Test” for further information.

•   Ensure that all of the connections of the hoses are

tight. The connections should not leak.

•   Ensure that the driven equipment is in good

working order.

•   Cold engines consume excess fuel. Utilize heat

from the jacket water system and the exhaust

system, when possible. Keep cooling system

components clean and keep cooling system

components in good repair. Never operate the

engine without water temperature regulators. All of

these items will help maintain operating

temperatures.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

52

SEBU8609

Cold Weather Operation

Cold Weather Operation

Cold Weather Operation

Hints for Cold Weather Operation

•   If the engine will start, operate the engine until a

minimum operating temperature of 80° C  (176° F)

is achieved. Achieving operating temperature will

help prevent the intake valves and exhaust valves

from sticking.

i04321989

Cold Weather Operation

•   The cooling system and the lubrication system for

the engine do not lose heat immediately upon

shutdown. This means that an engine can be shut

down for a period and the engine can still have the

ability to start readily.

Perkins  Diesel Engines can operate effectively in

cold weather. During cold weather, the starting and

the operation of the diesel engine is dependent on the

following items:

•   The type of fuel that is used

•   The viscosity of the engine oil

•   The operation of the glow plugs

•   Optional Cold starting aid

•   Install the correct specification of engine lubricant

before the beginning of cold weather.

•   Check all rubber parts (hoses, fan drive belts,)

weekly.

•   Check all electrical wiring and connections for any

fraying or damaged insulation.

•   Battery condition

This section will cover the following information:

•   Keep all batteries fully charged and warm.

•   Fill the fuel tank at the end of each shift.

•   Potential problems that are caused by cold-

weather operation

•   Check the air cleaners and the air intake daily.

Check the air intake more often when you operate

in snow.

•   Suggest steps which can be taken in order to

minimize starting problems and operating

problems when the ambient air temperature is

between 0° to−40 °C (32° to 40 °F).

•   Ensure that the glow plugs are in working order.

Refer to Troubleshooting, “Glow Plug Starting Aid-

Test”.

The operation and maintenance of an engine in

freezing temperatures is complex . This complexity is

because of the following conditions:

•   Weather conditions

•   Engine applications

Personal  injury  or  property damage  can  result

from alcohol or starting fluids.

Recommendations from your Perkins dealer or your

Perkins  distributor are based on past proven

practices. The information that is contained in this

section provides guidelines for cold-weather

operation.

Alcohol  or starting  fluids  are  highly  flammable

and toxic and if improperly stored could result in

injury or property damage.

Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as

ether. Such use  could result in an explosion and

personal injury.

•   For jump starting with cables in cold weather, refer

to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,

“Starting with Jump Start Cables.” for instructions.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

SEBU8609

53

Cold Weather Operation

Cold Weather Operation

Viscosity of the Engine Lubrication

Oil

When the engine is operated below normal operating

temperatures, fuel and oil are not completely burned

in the combustion chamber. This fuel and oil causes

soft carbon deposits to form on the valve stems.

Generally, the deposits do not cause problems and

the deposits are burned off during operation at normal

engine operating temperatures.

Correct engine oil viscosity is essential. Oil viscosity

affects the amount of torque that is needed to crank

the engine. Refer to this Operation and Maintenance

Manual, “Fluid Recommendations” for the

recommended viscosity of oil.

When starting and stopping an engine many times

without being operated in order to warm up

completely, the carbon deposits become thicker. This

starting and stopping can cause the following

problems:

Recommendationsfor the Coolant

Provide cooling system protection for the lowest

expected outside temperature. Refer to this

Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid

Recommendations” for the recommended coolant

mixture.

•   Free operation of the valves is prevented.

•   Valves become stuck.

In cold weather, check the coolant often for the

correct glycol concentration in order to ensure

adequate freeze protection.

•   Pushrods may become bent.

•   Other damage to valve train components can

result.

Engine Block Heaters

For this reason, when the engine is started, the

engine must be operated until the coolant

temperature is 80° C (176° F) minimum. Carbon

deposits on the valve stems will be kept at a minimum

and the free operation of the valves and the valve

components will be maintained.

Engine block heaters (if equipped) heat the engine

jacket water that surrounds the combustion

chambers. This heat provides the following functions:

•   Startability is improved.

•   Warm up time is reduced.

The engine must be thoroughly warmed in order to

keep other engine parts in better condition. The

service life of the engine will be generally extended.

Lubrication will be improved. There will be less acid

and less sludge in the oil. This condition will provide

longer service life for the engine bearings, the piston

rings, and other parts. However, limit unnecessary

idle time to 10 minutes in order to reduce wear and

unnecessary fuel consumption.

An electric block heater can be activated once the

engine is stopped. A block heater can be 110 V dc or

240 V dc. The output can be 750/1000W. Consult

your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for

more information.

Idling the Engine

When idling after the engine is started in cold

weather, increase the engine rpm from 1000 to 1200

rpm. This idling will warm up the engine more quickly.

Maintaining an elevated low idle speed for extended

periods will be easier with the installation of a hand

throttle. The engine should not be “raced” in order to

speed up the warm-up process.

The Water Temperature Regulator and

Insulated Heater Lines

The engine is equipped with a water temperature

regulator. When the engine coolant is below the

correct operating temperature, jacket water circulates

through the engine cylinder block and into the engine

cylinder head. The coolant then returns to the cylinder

block via an internal passage that bypasses the valve

of the coolant temperature regulator. This ensures

that coolant flows around the engine under cold

operating conditions. The water temperature

regulator begins to open when the engine jacket

water has reached the correct minimum operating

temperature. As the jacket water coolant temperature

rises above the minimum operating temperature, the

water temperature regulator opens further allowing

more coolant through the radiator to dissipate excess

heat.

While the engine is idling, the application of a light

load (parasitic load) will assist in achieving the

minimum operating temperature. The minimum

operating temperature is 80° C (176° F).

Recommendationsfor Coolant

Warm Up

Warm up an engine that has cooled below normal

operating temperatures due to inactivity. This warm

-up should be performed before the engine is

returned to full operation. During operation in very

cold temperature conditions, damage to engine valve

mechanisms can result from engine operation for

short intervals. This damage can happen if the engine

is started and the engine is stopped many times

without being operated in order to warm up

completely.

The progressive opening of the water temperature

regulator operates the progressive closing of the

bypass passage between the cylinder block and

head. This action ensures maximum coolant flow to

the radiator in order to achieve maximum heat

dissipation.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

54

SEBU8609

Cold Weather Operation

Fuel and the Effect from Cold Weather

Note: Do not restrict the air flow. Restriction of the air

flow can damage the fuel system. Perkins

discourages the use of all air flow restriction devices

such as radiator shutters. Restriction of the air flow

can result in the following: high exhaust

Group 2 fuels are considered acceptable for issues of

warranty. This group of fuels may reduce the life of

the engine, the engine's maximum power, and the

engine's fuel efficiency.

When Group 2 diesel fuels are used the following

components provide a means of minimizing problems

in cold weather:

temperatures, power loss, excessive fan usage and

reduction in fuel economy.

A cab heater is beneficial in very cold weather. The

feed from the engine and the return lines from the cab

should be insulated in order to reduce heat loss to the

outside air.

•   Glow plugs (if equipped)

•   Engine coolant heaters, which may be an OEM

option

Recommendationfor Crankcase Breather

Protection

•   Fuel heaters, which may be an OEM  option

•   Fuel line insulation, which may be an OEM  option

Crankcase ventilation gases contain a large quantity

of water vapor. This water vapor can freeze in cold

ambient conditions and can plug or damage the

crankcase ventilation system. If the engine is

operated in temperatures below −25° C  (−13° F),

measures must be taken to prevent freezing and

plugging of the breather system. Insulated hoses and

a heated canister assembly should be installed.

There are three major differences between Group 1

fuels and Group 2 fuels. Group 1 fuels have the

following different characteristics to Group 2 fuels.

•   A lower cloud point

•   A lower pour point

•   A higher energy per unit volume of fuel

Consult with your Perkins  dealer or your Perkins

distributer for the recommended breather

components for operation from −25° to -40°C

(−13° to -72.°F).

Note: Group 3 fuels reduce the life of the engine. The

use of Group 3 fuels is not covered by the Perkins

warranty.

i02322217

Group 3 fuels include Low Temperature Fuels  and

Aviation Kerosene Fuels .

Fuel and the Effect from Cold

Weather

Special fuels include Biofuel .

The cloud point is a temperature that allows wax

crystals to form in the fuel. These crystals can cause

the fuel filters to plug.

Note: Only use grades of fuel that are recommended

by Perkins . Refer to this Operation and Maintenance

Manual, “Fluid Recommendations”.

The pour point is the temperature when diesel fuel will

thicken. The diesel fuel becomes more resistant to

flow through fuel lines, fuel filters,and fuel pumps.

The following fuels can be used in this series of

engine.

Be aware of these facts when diesel fuel is

purchased. Consider the average ambient air

temperature for the engine's application. Engines that

are fueled in one climate may not operate well if the

engines are moved to another climate. Problems can

result due to changes in temperature.

•   Group 1

•   Group 2

•   Group 3

Before troubleshooting for low power or for poor

performance in the winter, check the fuel for waxing.

•   Special Fuels

Low temperature fuels may be available for engine

operation at temperatures below 0 °C  (32 °F). These

fuels limit the formation of wax in the fuel at low

temperatures.

Perkins  prefer only Group 1 and Group 2 fuels for

use in this series of engines.

Group 1 fuels are the preferred Group of Fuels for

general use by Perkins . Group 1 fuels maximize

engine life and engine performance. Group 1 fuels

are usually less available than Group 2 fuels.

Frequently, Group 1 fuels are not available in colder

climates during the winter.

For more information on cold weather operation, refer

to the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Cold

Weather Operation and Fuel Related Components in

Cold Weather”.

Note: Group 2 fuels must have a maximum wear scar

of 650 micrometers (HFRR to ISO 12156-1).

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

SEBU8609

55

Cold Weather Operation

Fuel Related Components in Cold Weather

i05200880

Fuel Related Components in

Cold Weather

Fuel Tanks

Condensation can form in partially filled fuel tanks.

Top off the fuel tanks after you operate the engine.

Fuel tanks should contain some provision for draining

water and sediment from the bottom of the tanks.

Some fuel tanks use supply pipes that al, low , water

and sediment to settle below the end of the fuel

supply pipe.

Some fuel tanks use supply lines that take fuel

directly from the bottom of the tank. If the engine is

equipped with this system, regular maintenance of

the fuel system filter is important.

Drain the water and sediment from any fuel storage

tank at the following intervals: weekly, oil changes

and refueling of the fuel tank. This procedure will help

prevent water and/or sediment from being pumped

from the fuel storage tank and into the engine fuel

tank.

Fuel Filters

The engine must have an in-line fuel filter installed

between the fuel tank and the electric operated fuel

lift pump. After you change the fuel filter, always

prime the fuel system in order to remove air bubbles

from the fuel system. Refer to the Operation and

Maintenance Manual in the Maintenance Section for

more information on priming the fuel system.

Fuel Heaters

Fuel heaters help to prevent fuel filters from plugging

in cold weather due to waxing.

For further information on fuel heaters, consult your

Perkins  dealer or distributor.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

56

SEBU8609

Engine Stopping

Stopping the Engine

Engine Stopping

i03756631

After Stopping Engine

i02334873

Stopping the Engine

Note: Before you check the engine oil, do not operate

the engine for at least 10 minutes in order to allow the

engine oil to return to the oil pan.

NOTICE

•   Check the crankcase oil level. Maintain the oil level

between the “MIN”  mark and the “MAX”  mark on

the engine oil level gauge.

Stopping  the engine  immediately  after it  has  been

working under load, can result in overheating and ac-

celerated wear of the engine components.

•   If necessary, perform minor adjustments. Repair

any leaks and tighten any loose bolts.

Avoid  accelerating  the  engine  prior   to  shutting  it

down.

•   If the engine is equipped with a service hour meter,

note the reading. Perform the maintenance that is

in the Operation and Maintenance Manual,

“Maintenance Interval Schedule”.

Avoiding hot  engine shutdowns will maximize  turbo-

charger shaft and bearing life.

Note: Individual applications will have different

control systems. Ensure that the shutoff procedures

are understood. Use the following general guidelines

in order to stop the engine.

•   Fill the fuel tank in order to help prevent

accumulation of moisture in the fuel. Do not overfill

the fuel tank.

1. Remove the load from the engine. Reduce the

engine speed (rpm) to low idle. Allow the engine to

idle for five minutes in order to cool the engine.

NOTICE

Only  use antifreeze/coolant  mixtures recommended

in the  Refill Capacities and  Recommendations topic

that  is in  this  Operation and  Maintenance  Manual.

Failure to do so can cause engine damage.

2. Stop the engine after the cool down period

according to the shutoff system on the engine and

turn the ignition key switch to the OFF position. If

necessary, refer to the instructions that are

provided by the OEM.

•   Allow the engine to cool. Check the coolant level.

•   If freezing temperatures are expected, check the

coolant for correct antifreeze protection. The

cooling system must be protected against freezing

to the lowest expected outside temperature. Add

the correct coolant/water mixture, if necessary.

i01903586

Emergency Stopping

•   Perform all required periodic maintenance on all

driven equipment. This maintenance is outlined in

the instructions from the OEM.

NOTICE

Emergency  shutoff  controls  are  for  EMERGENCY

use ONLY. DO  NOT use emergency shutoff  devices

or controls for normal stopping procedure.

The OEM may have equipped the application with an

emergency stop button. For more information about

the emergency stop button, refer to the OEM

information.

Ensure that any components for the external system

that support the engine operation are secured after

the engine is stopped.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

SEBU8609

57

Maintenance Section

Refill Capacities

Maintenance Section

Refill Capacities

(Table 7, contd)

(1)

More than one style of sump may be used on these engines.

Use these values to estimate the refill capacity. Use the engine

oil level gauge to fill the engine to the correct oil level. Record

the result in this table. These values are the approximate ca-

pacities for the Crankcase Oil Sump which includes the stand-

ard factory installed oil filters. Engines with auxiliary oil filters will

require additional oil. Refer to the OEM specifications for the ca-

pacity of the auxiliary oil filter.

i05145430

Refill Capacities

(2)

The Total Lubrication System includes the capacity for the

Crankcase Oil Sump plus the capacity of factory installed oil fil-

ters and other filters added to the lubrication system. Enter the

value for the capacity of the Total Lubrication System in this row.

LubricationSystem

Cooling System

The refill capacities for the engine crankcase reflect

the approximate capacity of the crankcase or sump

plus standard oil filters. Auxiliary oil filter systems will

require additional oil. Refer to the OEM specifications

for the capacity of the auxiliary oil filter. Refer to the

Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance

Section” for more information on Lubricant

Specifications.

To maintain the cooling system, the Total Cooling

System capacity must be known. The approximate

capacity is for the engine cooling system. External

System capacities will vary among applications. Refer

to the OEM specifications for the External System

capacity. This capacity information will be needed in

order to determine the amount of coolant that is

required for the Total Cooling System.

403F-15T Engine

403F-15T Engine

Table 6

Table 8

403F-15T Engine

Refill Capacities

403F-15T Engine

Refill Capacities

Compartment or System

Minimum

Maximum

Compartment or System

Liters

Quarts

4.5 L

(4.8 qt)

6 L

(6.3 qt)

Crankcase Oil Sump(1)

Engine Only

2.6

2.7

External System Per OEM(1)

Total Cooling System(2)

Total Lubrication System(2)

(1)

These values are the approximate capacities for the crankcase

oil sump which includes the standard factory installed oil filters.

Engines with auxiliary oil filters will require additional oil. Refer

to the OEM specifications for the capacity of the auxiliary oil

filter.

(1)

The External System includes a radiator or an expansion tank

with the following components: heat exchanger and piping. Re-

fer to the OEM specifications. Enter the value for the capacity of

the External System in this row.

(2)

The Total Lubrication System includes the capacity for the

Crankcase Oil Sump plus the capacity of factory installed oil fil-

ters and other filters added to the lubrication system. Enter the

value for the capacity of the Total Lubrication System in this row.

(2)

The Total Cooling System capacity includes the capacity of the

Engine plus the External System. Enter the value for the ca-

pacity of the Total Cooling System in this row.

404F-22 Engine

404F-22 and 404F-22T Engines

Table 9

Table 7

404F-22 Engine

Refill Capacities

404F-22 and 404F-22T Engines

Refill Capacities

Compartment or System

Liters

Quarts

Compartment or System

Minimum

Maximum

Engine Only

3.61

3.8

8.9 L

10.6 L

Crankcase Oil Sump(1)

(9.4 qt)

(11.2 qt)

External System Per OEM(1)

Total Cooling System(2)

Total Lubrication System(2)

(1)

The External System includes a radiator or an expansion tank

with the following components: heat exchanger and piping. Re-

fer to the OEM specifications. Enter the value for the capacity of

the External System in this row.

(continued)

(2)

The Total Cooling System capacity includes the capacity for the

Engine plus the External System. Enter the value for the ca-

pacity of the Total Cooling System in this row.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

58

SEBU8609

Refill Capacities

Fluid Recommendations

404F-22T Engine

Many engine failures are related to the cooling

system. The following problems are related to cooling

system failures: Overheating, leakage of the water

pump and plugged radiators or heat exchangers.

Table 10

404F-22T Engine

Refill Capacities

These failures can be avoided with correct cooling

system maintenance. Cooling system maintenance is

as important as maintenance of the fuel system and

the lubrication system. Quality of the coolant is as

important as the quality of the fuel and the lubricating

oil.

Compartment or System

Liters

Quarts

Engine Only

3.91

4.13

External System Per OEM(1)

Total Cooling System(2)

Coolant is normally composed of three elements:

Water, additives and glycol.

(1)

The External System includes a radiator or an expansion tank

with the following components: heat exchanger and piping. Re-

fer to the OEM specifications. Enter the value for the capacity of

the External System in this row.

Water

(2)

The Total Cooling System capacity includes the capacity for the

Engine plus the External System. Enter the value for the ca-

pacity of the Total Cooling System in this row.

Water is used in the cooling system in order to

transfer heat.

Distilled water or deionized water is

i05191400

recommended for use in engine cooling systems.

Fluid Recommendations

DO NOT use the following types of water in cooling

systems: Hard water, softened water that has been

conditioned with salt and sea water.

If distilled water or deionized water is not available,

use water with the properties that are listed in Table

11 .

General Coolant Information

NOTICE

Table 11

Never add coolant  to an overheated engine.  Engine

damage could result. Allow the engine to cool first.

Acceptable Water

Property

Chloride (Cl)

Sulfate (SO4)

Maximum Limit

40 mg/L

NOTICE

If the engine is to be stored in, or shipped to an  area

with below freezing temperatures, the cooling system

must be either protected to the lowest outside temper-

ature or drained completely to prevent damage.

100 mg/L

Total Hardness

Total Solids

Acidity

170 mg/L

340 mg/L

pH of 5.5 to 9.0

NOTICE

Frequently check the specific gravity of the coolant for

proper freeze protection or for anti-boil protection.

For a water analysis, consult one of the following

sources:

•   Local water utility company

•   Agricultural agent

Clean the cooling system for the following reasons:

•   Contamination of the cooling system

•   Overheating of the engine

•   Independent laboratory

Additives

•   Foaming of the coolant

Additives help to protect the metal surfaces of the

cooling system. A lack of coolant additives or

insufficient amounts of additives enable the following

conditions to occur:

NOTICE

Never operate  an engine without  water temperature

regulators in the  cooling system. Water  temperature

regulators help to maintain the  engine coolant at the

proper operating  temperature. Cooling system prob-

lems

can

develop

without

water

temperature

regulators.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

SEBU8609

59

Refill Capacities

Fluid Recommendations

•   Corrosion

NOTICE

Do not use propylene glycol in concentrations that ex-

ceed 50 percent glycol  because of the reduced heat

transfer capability of  propylene glycol. Use  ethylene

glycol in  conditions that require additional  protection

against boiling or freezing.

•   Formation of mineral deposits

•   Rust

•   Scale

•   Foaming of the coolant

Table 13

Many additives are depleted during engine operation.

These additives must be replaced periodically.

Propylene Glycol

Concentration

Freeze Protection

Additives must be added at the correct concentration.

Over concentration of additives can cause the

inhibitors to drop out-of-solution.The deposits can

enable the following problems to occur:

50 Percent

−29 °C (−20 °F)

To check the concentration of glycol in the coolant,

measure the specific gravity of the coolant.

•   Formation of gel compounds

Coolant Recommendations

•   Reduction of heat transfer

•   Leakage of the water pump seal

•   Plugging of radiators, coolers, and small passages

•   ELC

•   SCA

•   ASTM

Extended Life Coolant

Supplement Coolant Additive

American Society for Testing and

Glycol

Materials

Glycol in the coolant helps to provide protection

against the following conditions:

The following two coolants are used in Perkins

diesel engines:

•   Boiling

Preferred – Perkins  ELC

•   Freezing

Acceptable – A commercial heavy-duty antifreeze

•   Cavitation of the water pump

that meets ASTM D6210 specifications

For optimum performance, Perkins  recommends a

1:1 mixture of a water/glycol solution.

NOTICE

The  400F   industrial  engines must  be operated

with a 1:1  mixture of water and glycol.  This con-

centration allows the NOx reduction system to op-

erate correctly at high ambient temperatures.

Note: Use a mixture that will provide protection

against the lowest ambient temperature.

Note: 100 percent pure glycol will freeze at a

temperature of −23 °C (−9 °F).

NOTICE

Most conventional antifreezes use ethylene glycol.

Propylene glycol may also be used. In a 1:1 mixture

with water, ethylene and propylene glycol provide

similar protection against freezing and boiling. Refer

to Table 12 and refer to table 13 .

Do not use a commercial coolant/antifreeze that  only

meets the  ASTM  D3306 specification.  This type  of

coolant/antifreeze   is   made   for   light   automotive

applications.

Table 12

Ethylene Glycol

Perkins  recommends a 1:1 mixture of water and

glycol. This mixture of water and glycol will provide

optimum heavy-duty performance as an antifreeze.

This ratio may be increased to 1:2 water to glycol if

extra freezing protection is required.

Concentration

50 Percent

Freeze Protection

−36 °C (−33 °F)

60 Percent

−51 °C (−60 °F)

A mixture of SCA inhibitor and water is acceptable

but will not give the same level of corrosion, boiling

and, freezing protection as ELC. Perkins

recommends a 6 percent to 8 percent concentration

of SCA in those cooling systems. Distilled water or

deionized water is preferred. Water which has the

recommended properties may be used

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE

合作伙伴:
友情连接:
版权所有 宁波日昕动力科技有限公司www.rxdlkj.com 电话:400-100-8969
浙ICP备09086525号-3 站点地图在线客服客服经理   手机版

版权所有:关于未经授权的商家请不要擅自盗取图片信息,一旦发现未经允许盗用我司授权信息者,将追究版权责任,请慎重!谢谢合作!