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珀金斯Perkins1104C-E44(T)(TA)操作保养(英文)


详细描述:

Operation and

Maintenance

Manual

1104E Engine

RF (Engine)

R H ( Engine)

R K ( Engine)

This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


 

i01658146

ImportantSafetyInformation

Mostaccidentsthatinvolveproductoperation,maintenanceandrepairarecausedbyfailuretoobserve

basicsafetyrulesorprecautions.Anaccidentcanoftenbeavoidedbyrecognizingpotentiallyhazardous

situationsbeforeanaccidentoccurs.Apersonmustbealerttopotentialhazards.Thispersonshouldalso

havethenecessarytraining,skillsandtoolstoperformthesefunctionsproperly.

Improperoperation,lubrication,maintenanceorrepairofthisproductcanbedangerousand

couldresultininjuryordeath.

Donotoperateorperformanylubrication,maintenanceorrepaironthisproduct,untilyouhave

readandunderstoodtheoperation,lubrication,maintenanceandrepairinformation.

Safetyprecautionsandwarningsareprovidedinthismanualandontheproduct.Ifthesehazardwarnings

arenotheeded,bodilyinjuryordeathcouldoccurtoyouortootherpersons.

Thehazardsareidentifiedbythe“SafetyAlertSymbol”andfollowedbya“SignalWord”suchas

“DANGER”,“WARNING”or“CAUTION”.TheSafetyAlert“WARNING”labelisshownbelow.

Themeaningofthissafetyalertsymbolisasfollows:

Attention!BecomeAlert!YourSafetyisInvolved.

Themessagethatappearsunderthewarningexplainsthehazardandcanbeeitherwrittenorpictorially

presented.

Operationsthatmaycauseproductdamageareidentifiedby“NOTICE”labelsontheproductandin

thispublication.

Perkins cannot anticipa te e ver y p os sible c irc u mstance t hat m ight invol ve a pote n ti al hazard .

Thewarningsinthispublicationandontheproductare,therefore,notallinclusive.Ifatool,

proc edure, work me thod or ope rating technique tha t is not s pecific ally rec ommended by Perkins

isused,youmustsatisfyyourselfthatitissafeforyouandforothers.Youshouldalsoensurethat

theproductwillnotbedamagedorbemadeunsafebytheoperation,lubrication,maintenanceor

repairproceduresthatyouchoose.

Theinformation,specifications,andillustrationsinthispublicationareonthebasisofinformationthat

wasavailableatthetimethatthepublicationwaswritten.Thespecifications,torques,pressures,

measurements,adjustments,illustrations,andotheritemscanchangeatanytime.Thesechangescan

affecttheservicethatisgiventotheproduct.Obtainthecompleteandmostcurrentinformationbeforeyou

s t ar t any jo b . Perkins dea le rs hav e t he m os t c ur r en t i nfo rm ati on a va il abl e.

When replacement parts are required for this

product Perkinsre comme nds usi ng Perkins

re pl ace ment parts or parts w ith equiva lent

specificationsincluding,butnotlimitedto,  phys-

icaldimensions,type,strengthandmaterial.

Failuretoheedthiswarningcanleadtoprema-

turefailures,productdamage,personalinjuryor

death.

This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


 

SEBU8121

3

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Warranty Section

Warranty Information ............................................  81

Foreword ................................................................. 4

Index Section

Safety Section

Index .....................................................................  82

Safety Messages ....................................................  5

General Hazard Information ...................................  5

Burn Prevention ...................................................... 7

Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention .............. 7

Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention .......... 9

Before Starting Engine ............................................ 9

Engine Starting .......................................................  9

Engine Stopping ...................................................  10

Electrical System ..................................................  10

Engine Electronics ................................................. 11

Product Information Section

General Information .............................................. 12

Model Views .........................................................  13

Product Identification Information  ........................  17

Operation Section

Lifting and Storage ................................................ 19

Gauges and Indicators .......................................... 22

Features and Controls ..........................................  23

Engine Diagnostics ............................................... 27

Engine Starting .....................................................  29

Engine Operation .................................................. 33

Engine Stopping ...................................................  34

Cold Weather Operation ....................................... 35

Maintenance Section

Refill Capacities .................................................... 39

Maintenance Interval Schedule ............................  52

This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


 

4

SEBU8121

Foreword

Foreword

Recommended service should be performed at the

appropriate intervals as indicated in the Maintenance

Interval Schedule. The actual operating environment

of the engine also governs the Maintenance Interval

Schedule. Therefore, under extremely  severe,

dusty, wet or freezing cold  operating conditions,

more frequent lubrication and maintenance than is

specified in the Maintenance Interval Schedule may

be necessary.

Literature Information

This manual contains safety, operation instructions,

lubrication and maintenance information.  This

manual should be stored in or near the engine area

in a literature holder or literature storage area. Read,

study and keep it with  the literature and engine

information.

The maintenance schedule items are organized for

a preventive maintenance management program. If

the preventive maintenance program is followed, a

periodic tune-up is not required. The implementation

of a preventive maintenance management program

should minimize operating  costs through cost

avoidances resulting from reductions in unscheduled

downtime and failures.

English is the primary  language for all Perkins

publications. The English used facilitates translation

and consistency.

Some photographs or illustrations in this  manual

show details or attachments that may be different

from your engine. Guards and  covers may have

been removed for illustrative purposes. Continuing

improvement and advancement of product design

may have caused changes to your engine which are

not included in this manual. Whenever a question

arises regarding your engine, or this manual, please

consult with your Perkins dealer  or your Perkins

distributor for the latest available information.

Maintenance Intervals

Perform maintenance on items  at multiples of

the original requirement. We recommend that the

maintenan

ce schedules be reproduced and displayed

near the engine as a convenient reminder. We also

recommend that a maintenance record be maintained

as part of the engine’s permanent record.

Safety

Your authorized Perkins dealer  or your Perkins

distributor can assist  you in adjusting  your

maintenance schedule to meet the needs of  your

operating environment.

This safety section lists basic safety  precautions.

In addition, this  section identifies hazardous,

warning situations. Read and understand the basic

precautions listed in  the safety section before

operating or performing lubrication, maintenance and

repair on this product.

Overhaul

Major engine overhaul details are not  covered in

the Operation and Maintenance Manual  except

for the interval and the maintenance items  in that

interval. Major repairs should only be carried out by

Perkins authorized personnel. Your Perkins dealer

or your Perkins distributor offers a variety of options

regarding overhaul programs. If you  experience

a major engine failure, there  are also numerous

after failure overhaul options available. Consult with

your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for

information regarding these options.

Operation

Operating techniques outlined in this manual  are

basic. They assist with developing  the skills and

techniques required to operate the  engine more

efficiently and economically. Skill and techniques

develop as the operator gains  knowledge of the

engine and its capabilities.

The operation section is a reference for operators.

Photographs and illustrations guide the  operator

through procedures of inspecting, starting, operating

and stopping the engine. This section also includes a

discussion of electronic diagnostic information.

California Proposition 65 Warning

Diesel engine exhaust and some of its constituents

are known to the State of California to cause cancer,

birth defects, and other reproductive harm. Battery

posts, terminals and related accessories contain lead

and lead compounds. Wash hands after handling.

Maintenance

The maintenance section is a guide to engine care.

The illustrated, step-by-step instructions are grouped

by service hours and/or calendar time maintenance

intervals. Items in the maintenance schedule  are

referenced to detailed instructions that follow.

This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


 

SEBU8121

5

Safety Section

Safety Messages

Safety Section

Ether

The warning label for ether is located on the top, the

front, the rear, or the side of the engine.

i02206606

Safety Messages

There may be several specific  warning signs on

an engine. The exact location of the hazards  and

the description of the hazards are reviewed in this

section. Please become familiar with  all warning

signs.

Ensure that all of the warning signs are legible. Clean

the warning signs or replace the  warning signs if

the words cannot be read or if the pictures are not

visible. When the warning signs are cleaned, use a

cloth, water, and soap. Do not use solvent, gasoline,

or other harsh chemicals to clean the warning signs.

Solvents, gasoline, or harsh chemicals could loosen

the adhesive that secures the warning signs. The

warning signs that are loosened could  drop off of

the engine.

g00640926

Never spray Ether starting aids into the air inlet.

i02203039

General Hazard Information

Replace any damaged warning signs or  missing

warning signs. If a warning sign is attached to a part

of the engine that is replaced, install a new warning

sign on the replacement part. Perkins  dealers or

Perkins distributors can provide new warning signs.

Do not work on the engine and do not operate the

engine unless the instructions and warnings in the

Operation and Maintenance Manual are understood.

Correct care is your responsibility. Failure to follow

the instructions or failure to heed the warnings could

result in injury or in death.

The warning labels that may be found on the engine

are illustrated and described.

g00104545

Illustration 1

Attach a “Do Not Operate” warning tag or a similar

warning tag to the start  switch or to the controls

before you service the equipment  or before you

repair the equipment.

This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


 

6

SEBU8121

Safety Section

General Hazard Information

The maximum air pressure for cleaning purposes

must be below 205 kPa  (30 psi). The maximum

water pressure for cleaning purposes must be below

275 kPa (40 psi).

Fluid Penetration

Pressure can be trapped in the hydraulic circuit long

after the engine has been stopped. The pressure can

cause hydraulic fluid or items such as pipe plugs to

escape rapidly if the pressure is not relieved correctly.

Do not remove any hydraulic components or parts

until pressure has been relieved or personal injury

may occur. Do not  disassemble any hydraulic

components or parts until pressure has been relieved

or personal injury may occur.  Refer to the OEM

information for any procedures that are required to

relieve the hydraulic pressure.

g00702020

Illustration 2

Wear a hard hat,  protective glasses, and other

protective equipment, as required.

Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry that can snag

on controls or on other parts of the engine.

Make sure that all protective guards and all covers

are secured in place on the engine.

Keep the engine free from foreign material. Remove

debris, oil, tools, and other items from the deck, from

walkways, and from steps.

Never put maintenance fluids into glass containers.

Drain all liquids into a suitable container.

Obey all local regulations for the disposal of liquids.

g00687600

Use all cleaning solutions  with care. Report all

necessary repairs.

Illustration 3

Always use a board or cardboard when you check

for a leak. Leaking fluid that is under pressure can

penetrate body tissue. Fluid penetration can cause

serious injury and possible death. A pin hole leak can

cause severe injury. If fluid is injected into your skin,

you must get treatment immediately. Seek treatment

from a doctor that is familiar with this type of injury.

Do not allow  unauthorized personnel on the

equipment.

Note: Ensure that the power supply is disconnected

before you work on the bus bar or the glow plugs.

Unless you are  instructed otherwise, perform

maintenance on the engine with the equipment in

the servicing position. Refer to the OEM information

for the procedure for placing the equipment in the

servicing position.

Containing Fluid Spillage

Care must be taken in order to  ensure that fluids

are contained during performance of  inspection,

maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of  the

engine. Make provision to collect the  fluid with a

suitable container before any compartment is opened

or before any component is disassembled.

Pressure Air and Water

Pressurized air and/or water  can cause debris

and/or hot water to be blown out. This could result in

personal injury.

•  Only use the tools that are suitable for collecting

fluids and equipment that is suitable for collecting

fluids.

When pressurized air and/or  water is used for

cleaning, wear protective clothing, protective shoes,

and eye protection. Eye protection includes goggles

or a protective face shield.

•  Only use the tools that are suitable for containing

fluids and equipment that is suitable for containing

fluids.

This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


 

SEBU8121

7

Safety Section

Burn Prevention

Obey all local regulations for the disposal of liquids.

i02203164

Fire Prevention and Explosion

Prevention

i02143195

Burn Prevention

Do not touch any  part of an operating engine.

Allow the engine to cool before any  maintenance

is performed on the engine.  Relieve all pressure

in the air system, in  the hydraulic system, in the

lubrication system, in the fuel  system, or in the

cooling system before any lines, fittings or related

items are disconnected.

Coolant

When the engine is at operating temperature, the

engine coolant is hot. The  coolant is also under

pressure. The radiator and all lines to the heaters or

to the engine contain hot coolant.

g00704000

Illustration 4

All fuels, most lubricants, and some coolant mixtures

are flammable.

Any contact with hot coolant or with steam can cause

severe burns. Allow cooling system components to

cool before the cooling system is drained.

Flammable fluids that are leaking or spilled onto hot

surfaces or onto electrical components can cause

a fire. Fire may cause personal injury and property

damage.

Check the coolant level after the engine has stopped

and the engine has been allowed to cool.

Ensure that the filler cap is cool before removing the

filler cap. The filler cap must be cool enough to touch

with a bare hand. Remove the filler  cap slowly in

order to relieve pressure.

A flash fire may result if the covers  for the engine

crankcase are removed within fifteen minutes after

an emergency shutdown.

Determine whether the engine will be operated in an

environment that allows combustible gases to be

drawn into the air inlet system. These gases could

cause the engine to overspeed.  Personal injury,

property damage, or engine damage could result.

Cooling system conditioner contains alkali. Alkali can

cause personal injury. Do not allow alkali to contact

the skin, the eyes, or the mouth.

Oils

If the application involves the presence of combustible

gases, consult your Perkins  dealer and/or your

Perkins distributor for additional information about

suitable protection devices.

Hot oil and hot lubricating components can cause

personal injury. Do not allow hot oil  to contact the

skin. Also, do not allow hot components to contact

the skin.

Remove all flammable combustible materials  or

conductive materials such as fuel, oil, and debris from

the engine. Do not allow any flammable combustible

materials or conductive materials to accumulate on

the engine.

Batteries

Electrolyte is an acid. Electrolyte can cause personal

injury. Do not allow electrolyte to contact the skin or

the eyes. Always wear protective glasses for servicing

batteries. Wash hands after touching the batteries

and connectors. Use of gloves is recommended.

Store fuels and lubricants  in correctly marked

containers away from unauthorized persons. Store

oily rags and any flammable materials in protective

containers. Do not smoke in areas that are used for

storing flammable materials.

Do not expose the engine to any flame.

This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


 

8

SEBU8121

Safety Section

Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention

Exhaust shields (if equipped) protect hot exhaust

components from oil or fuel spray in case of a line,

a tube, or a seal failure. Exhaust  shields must be

installed correctly.

Use caution when you are refueling an engine. Do

not smoke while you are refueling an engine. Do not

refuel an engine near open flames or sparks. Always

stop the engine before refueling.

Do not weld on lines or tanks that contain flammable

fluids. Do not flame cut lines or tanks that contain

flammable fluid. Clean any  such lines or tanks

thoroughly with a nonflammable solvent  prior to

welding or flame cutting.

Wiring must be kept in good condition. All electrical

wires must be correctly routed and securely attached.

Check all electrical wires daily.  Repair any wires

that are loose or  frayed before you operate the

engine. Clean all electrical connections and tighten

all electrical connections.

Eliminate all wiring that is unattached or unnecessary.

Do not use any wires or cables that are smaller than

the recommended gauge. Do not bypass any fuses

and/or circuit breakers.

Arcing or sparking  could cause a fire. Secure

connections, recommended wiring, and correctly

maintained battery cables will help to prevent arcing

or sparking.

g00704135

Illustration 6

Gases from a battery can explode. Keep any open

flames or sparks away from the top of a battery. Do

not smoke in battery charging areas.

Inspect all  lines and hoses for  wear or for

deterioration. The hoses must be correctly routed.

The lines and hoses must have adequate support

and secure clamps. Tighten all connections to the

recommended torque. Leaks can cause fires.

Never check the battery charge by placing a metal

object across the terminal posts. Use a voltmeter or

a hydrometer.

Oil filters and fuel filters must be correctly installed.

The filter housings must be tightened to the correct

torque.

Incorrect jumper cable connections  can cause

an explosion that  can result in injury. Refer  to

the Operation Section of this  manual for specific

instructions.

Do not charge a frozen battery. This may cause an

explosion.

The batteries must be  kept clean. The covers

(if equipped) must be kept  on the cells. Use the

recommended cables, connections, and battery box

covers when the engine is operated.

Fire Extinguisher

Make sure that a fire extinguisher is  available. Be

familiar with the operation of the fire extinguisher.

Inspect the fire extinguisher and  service the fire

extinguisher regularly. Obey the recommendations

on the instruction plate.

g00704059

Illustration 5

This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


 

SEBU8121

9

Safety Section

Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention

Lines, Tubes and Hoses

Chips or other debris may fly off objects when objects

are struck. Before objects are struck, ensure that no

one will be injured by flying debris.

Do not bend high pressure lines. Do not strike high

pressure lines. Do not install any lines that are bent

or damaged.

i02157341

Before Starting Engine

Repair any lines that are loose or damaged. Leaks

can cause fires. Consult your Perkins dealer or your

Perkins distributor for repair or for replacement parts.

Check lines, tubes and hoses carefully. Do not use

your bare hand to check for leaks. Use a board  or

cardboard to check for leaks. Tighten all connections

to the recommended torque.

NOTICE

For initial start-up of  a new or rebuilt engine, and for

start-up of  an engine that  has been serviced,  make

provision to shut the engine off should  an overspeed

occur. This may be  accomplished by shutting off the

air and/or fuel supply to the engine.

Replace the parts if any of the following conditions

are present:

•  End fittings are damaged or leaking.

•  Outer coverings are chafed or cut.

•  Wires are exposed.

Overspeed shutdown should occur automatically.

If automatic shutdown does not occur,  press the

emergency stop button in order to cut the fuel and/or

air to the engine.

Inspect the engine for potential hazards.

•  Outer coverings are ballooning.

•  Flexible part of the hoses are kinked.

•  Outer covers have embedded armoring.

•  End fittings are displaced.

Before starting the engine, ensure that no one is on,

underneath, or close to the engine. Ensure that the

area is free of personnel.

If equipped, ensure that the lighting system for the

engine is suitable for the conditions. Ensure that all

lights work correctly, if equipped.

Make sure that all clamps, guards, and heat shields

are installed correctly. During engine operation, this

will help to prevent vibration, rubbing against other

parts, and excessive heat.

All protective guards and all protective covers must

be installed if the engine must be started  in order

to perform service procedures. To help prevent an

accident that is caused by parts  in rotation, work

around the parts carefully.

i02143194

Crushing Prevention  and

Cutting Prevention

Do not bypass the automatic shutoff circuits. Do not

disable the automatic shutoff circuits. The circuits are

provided in order to help prevent personal injury. The

circuits are also provided in order to  help prevent

engine damage.

Support the component correctly when work beneath

the component is performed.

See the Service  Manual for repairs  and for

adjustments.

Unless other maintenance instructions are provided,

never attempt adjustments while  the engine is

running.

i02207232

Engine Starting

Stay clear of all rotating  parts and of all moving

parts. Leave the guards in place until maintenance

is performed. After the maintenance is performed,

reinstall the guards.

Keep objects away from moving fan blades. The fan

blades will throw objects or cut objects.

Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as

ether. Such use could  result in an explosion and

personal injury.

When objects are struck, wear protective glasses in

order to avoid injury to the eyes.

This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


 

10

SEBU8121

Safety Section

Engine Stopping

If a warning tag is attached to the engine start switch

or to the controls, DO NOT start the engine or move

the controls. Consult with the person that attached

the warning tag before the engine is started.

Use the Emergency Stop Button (if equipped) ONLY

in an emergency situation. Do not use the Emergency

Stop Button for normal engine stopping.  After an

emergency stop, DO NOT start the engine until the

problem that caused the emergency stop has been

corrected.

All protective guards and all protective covers must

be installed if the engine must be started  in order

to perform service procedures. To help prevent an

accident that is caused by parts  in rotation, work

around the parts carefully.

Stop the engine if an overspeed condition occurs

during the initial start-up of a new engine or an engine

that has been overhauled. This may be accomplished

by shutting off the fuel supply to the engine and/or

shutting off the air supply to the engine.

Start the engine from the operator’s compartment or

from the engine start switch.

Always start the engine according to the procedure

that is described in the Operation and Maintenance

Manual, “Engine Starting” topic in  the Operation

Section. Knowing the correct procedure will help to

prevent major damage to the engine components.

Knowing the procedure will also  help to prevent

personal injury.

i02176668

Electrical System

Never disconnect any charging unit circuit or battery

circuit cable from the battery when the charging unit

is operating. A spark can cause  the combustible

gases that are produced by some batteries to ignite.

To ensure that the jacket water heater (if equipped)

and/or the lube oil heater (if equipped)  is working

correctly, check the water temperature gauge and the

oil temperature gauge during the heater operation.

To help prevent sparks from igniting  combustible

gases that are produced by  some batteries, the

negative “−” jump start cable should be connected

last from the external power source to the negative

“−” terminal of the starting motor. If the starting motor

is not equipped with a negative “−” terminal, connect

the jump start cable to the engine block.

Engine exhaust contains products of combustion

which can be harmful to your health. Always start the

engine and operate the engine in a well ventilated

area. If the engine is started in an enclosed  area,

vent the engine exhaust to the outside.

Check the electrical wires daily for  wires that are

loose or frayed. Tighten all  loose electrical wires

before the engine is  started. Repair all frayed

electrical wires before the engine is  started. See

the Operation and Maintenance Manual for specific

starting instructions.

Note: The engine is equipped  with an automatic

device for cold starting for  normal conditions of

operation. If the engine will be operated in very cold

conditions, then an extra cold starting aid may  be

required. Normally, the engine will be equipped with

the correct type of starting  aid for your region of

operation.

Grounding Practices

The engines are equipped with a glow plug starting

aid in each individual cylinder that heats the intake

air in order to improve starting.

Correct grounding for the engine electrical system

is necessary for optimum  engine performance

and reliability. Incorrect grounding  will result in

uncontrolled electrical circuit paths and in unreliable

electrical circuit paths.

i01928905

Engine Stopping

Uncontrolled electrical circuit paths can  result in

damage to main bearings, to crankshaft  bearing

journal surfaces, and to aluminum components.

Stop the engine according  to the procedure in

the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine

Stopping (Operation Section)” in order  to avoid

overheating of the engine and accelerated wear of

the engine components.

Engines that are installed without engine-to-frame

ground straps can  be damaged by electrical

discharge.

To ensure that the engine and the engine electrical

systems function correctly, an  engine-to-frame

ground strap with a direct path to the battery must be

used. This path may be provided by way of a direct

engine ground to the frame.

This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


 

SEBU8121

11

Safety Section

Engine Electronics

All grounds should be tight and free of corrosion. The

engine alternator must be grounded to the negative

“-” battery terminal with a wire that is  adequate to

handle the full charging current of the alternator.

i01885770

Engine Electronics

Tampering with the electronic system installation

or the OEM  wiring installation can be  dangerous

and could result in personal injury or death and/or

engine damage.

This engine has a comprehensive, programmable

Engine Monitoring System. The Electronic Control

Module (ECM) has the ability to monitor the engine

operating conditions. If any of the engine parameters

extend outside an allowable range, the  ECM will

initiate an immediate action.

The following actions  are available for engine

monitoring control: WARNING,  DERATE, and

SHUTDOWN. These engine monitoring modes have

the ability to limit engine speed and/or the engine

power.

•  Engine Coolant Temperature

•  Engine Oil Pressure

•  Engine Speed

•  Fuel Temperature

•  Intake Manifold Air Temperature

•  System Voltage

The Engine Monitoring package can vary for different

engine models and different engine applications.

However, the monitoring system and the  engine

monitoring control will be similar for all engines.

Note: Many of the engine control systems and display

modules that are available for Perkins Engines will

work in unison with the Engine Monitoring System.

Together, the two controls will provide the  engine

monitoring function for the specific engine application.

Refer to the Electronic Troubleshooting Manual for

more information on the Engine Monitoring System.

This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


 

12

SEBU8121

Product Information Section

General Information

Product Information

Section

General Information

i01889424

Welding on  Engines with

Electronic Controls

NOTICE

Proper  welding procedures  are  necessary in  order

to avoid damage to  the engine’s ECM, sensors, and

associated components. When possible,  remove the

component from  the unit and  then weld the  compo-

nent.  If removal  of  the component  is  not possible,

the following  procedure must be  followed when you

weld with  a unit  that is equipped  with an  Electronic

Engine. The following procedure  is considered to be

the safest procedure to weld a  component. This pro-

cedure should provide a  minimum risk of damage to

electronic components.

g00765012

Illustration 7

Use the example above. The  current flow from the welder to

the ground clamp of the  welder will not cause damage to any

associated components.

(1) Engine

(2) Welding rod

(3) Keyswitch in the OFF position

(4) Battery disconnect switch in the open position

(5) Disconnected battery cables

(6) Battery

NOTICE

(7) Electrical/Electronic component

(8) Maximum distance between  the component that is being

welded and any electrical/electronic component

(9) The component that is being welded

(10) Current path of the welder

(11) Ground clamp for the welder

Do not  ground  the welder  to electrical  components

such as the ECM or sensors. Improper grounding can

cause damage  to the drive  train bearings, hydraulic

components, electrical  components, and other  com-

ponents.

4.  Connect the welding ground cable directly to the

part that will be welded. Place the ground cable as

close as possible to the weld in order to reduce the

possibility of welding current damage to bearings,

hydraulic components, electrical components, and

ground straps.

Clamp the ground cable from  the welder to the com-

ponent that will be welded. Place the  clamp as close

as possible to the weld. This will help reduce the pos-

sibility of damage.

1.  Stop the engine. Turn the switched power to the

Note: If electrical/electronic components are used

as a ground for the welder, or electrical/electronic

components are located between the welder ground

and the weld, current flow from  the welder could

severely damage the component.

OFF position.

2.  Disconnect the negative battery cable from the

battery. If a battery disconnect switch is provided,

open the switch.

5.  Protect the wiring harness from welding debris

3.  Disconnect the J1/P1 connectors from the ECM.

Move the harness to a position that will not allow

the harness to accidentally move back and make

contact with any of the ECM pins.

and spatter.

6.  Use standard welding practices to  weld the

materials.

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SEBU8121

13

Product Information Section

Model Views

Model Views

i02247468

Model View Illustrations

1104 Engine Views

g01131700

Illustration 8

Left side view of the  1104 engine

Typical example of the  1104 engine

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14

SEBU8121

Product Information Section

Model Views

(1) Fuel lines

(8) Engine oil filter

(2) Fuel priming pump

(9) Water pump

(3) Fuel filter

(10) Crankshaft pulley

(4) Machine interface connector (MIC)

(5) Speed/timing sensor

(6) Electronic fuel injection pump

(7) Engine oil pressure sensor

(11) Alternator

(12) Engine coolant temperature sensor

(13) Voltage load protection module

(14) Electronic control module (ECM)

g01131701

Illustration 9

Right side view of  the 1104 engine

Typical example of the  1104 engine

(1) Exhaust elbow

(2) Turbocharger

(3) Wastegate actuator

(4) Starter motor

(5) Flywheel housing

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SEBU8121

15

Product Information Section

Model Views

i02247483

Table 1

Engine Description

1104 Electronic Engine Specifications

Number of Cylinders

Bore

4 In-Line

105 mm (4.134 inch)

127 mm (5.0 inch)

The Perkins1104 Electronic Engine is designed for

the following applications: machine and industrial

mobile equipment. The engines are available in the

following types of aspiration:

Stroke

Aspiration

Turbocharged, aftercooled

Turbocharged

Naturally aspirated

•  Turbocharged aftercooled

•  Turbocharged

Compression Ratio

NA 19.25:1 NA

T 18.23:1 T,  TA

Displacement

4.4 L (268  in  )

3

1-3-4-2

•  Naturally aspirated

Firing Order

Rotation (flywheel end)

Valve Lash Setting (Inlet)

Counterclockwise

Engine Specifications

0.20 mm (0.008 inch)

Note: The front end of the engine  is opposite the

flywheel end of the engine. The  left and the right

sides of the engine are determined from the flywheel

end. The number 1 cylinder is the front cylinder.

Valve Lash  Setting

(Exhaust)

0.45 mm (0.018 inch)

Electronic Engine Features

The Perkins 1104 Electronic Engine is designed with

electronic controls. The integral on board computer

controls the operation  of the engine. Current

operating conditions are monitored. The Electronic

Control Module (ECM) controls the response of the

engine to these conditions and to the demands of the

operator. These conditions and operator demands

determine the precise control of fuel injection by the

ECM. The electronic engine control system provides

the following features:

•  Engine monitoring

g00984281

•  Engine speed governing

•  Cold start strategy

Illustration 10

Typical example

1104 Electronic engine

(A) Inlet valves

•  Automatic air/fuel ratio control

•  Torque rise shaping

(B) Exhaust valves

•  Automatic altitude compensation

•  Fuel temperature compensation

•  Injection timing control

•  System diagnostics

For more information on electronic engine features,

refer to the Operation and Maintenance  Manual,

“Features and Controls” topic (Operation Section).

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16

SEBU8121

Product Information Section

Model Views

Engine Diagnostics

Engine Service Life

The Perkins 1104 engine has built-in diagnostics

in order to ensure that all  of the components are

functioning properly. The operator will be informed of

any change to a programmed limit. The operator will

be alerted to the condition by a “Stop or  Warning”

lamp that may be mounted on  the dashboard or

on the control panel. Under certain conditions, the

engine horsepower and the vehicle speed may be

limited. The electronic service tool may be used to

display the diagnostic codes.

Engine efficiency and maximum utilization of engine

performance depend on the adherence to proper

operation and maintenance recommendations. In

addition, use recommended fuels, coolants  and

lubricants. Use the Operation and  Maintenance

Manual as a guide for required engine maintenance.

Expected engine life is generally predicted by the

average power that is demanded. The average power

that is demanded is based on fuel consumption of

the engine over a period of time. Reduced hours of

operation at full throttle and/or operating at reduced

throttle settings result in a  lower average power

demand. Reduced hours of operation will increase

the length of  operating time before an engine

overhaul is required.

There are three types of diagnostic codes: active,

logged, and event.

Most of the diagnostic codes are logged and stored

in the ECM. For  additional information, refer to

the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine

Diagnostics” topic (Operation Section).

The ECM provides an  electronic governor that

controls the injector output in order to maintain the

desired engine rpm.

Engine Cooling and Lubrication

The cooling system  consists of the following

components:

•  Gear-driven centrifugal water pump

•  Water temperature regulators which regulate the

engine coolant temperature

•  Gear-driven oil pump (gear type)

•  Oil cooler

The engine lubricating oil is  supplied by a gear

type pump. The engine lubricating oil is cooled and

the engine lubricating oil is filtered. Bypass valves

provide unrestricted flow of lubrication  oil to the

engine pa, rts when oil viscosity is high. Bypass valves

can also provide unrestricted flow of lubrication oil

to the engine parts if the oil cooler should become

plugged or if the oil filter element  should become

plugged.

Engine efficiency, efficiency of emission controls, and

engine performance depend on adherence to proper

operation and maintenance recommendations.

Engine performance and efficiency also depend on

the use of recommended fuels, lubrication oils, and

coolants. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance

Manual, “Maintenance Interval Schedule” for more

information on maintenance items.

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SEBU8121

17

Product Information Section

Product Identification Information

Product Identification

Information

i01940474

Serial Number Plate

i02280116

Engine Identification

Perkins engines are identified by a serial number.

This number is shown on a serial number plate that

is mounted on the left hand side of the engine block.

An example  of an  engine number  is

RE12345U090001H.

RE __________________________________________Type of engine

RE12345____________________________Engine List Number

U ____________________________Built in the United Kingdom

090001 ___________________________Engine Serial Number

H _____________________________________Year of Manufacture

g00994966

Illustration 11

Perkins dealers need these numbers  in order to

determine the components that were included with

the engine. This permits accurate identification of

replacement part numbers.

Typical serial number plate

(1) Temporary Parts List number

(2) Type

(3) Serial number

(4) List number

The Serial Number Plate is located on the left side of

the cylinder block behind the high pressure pipes of

the Fuel injection pump.

The following information is stamped on the Serial

Number Plate: Engine serial number, Model, and

Arrangement number.

i02164876

Reference Numbers

Information for the following items may be needed to

order parts. Locate the information for your engine.

Record the information in the appropriate space.

Make a copy of  this list for a record.  Keep the

information for future reference.

Record for Reference

Engine Model  _______________________________________________

Engine Serial number  _____________________________________

Engine Low Idle rpm  ______________________________________

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18

SEBU8121

Product Information Section

Product Identification Information

Engine Full Load rpm  _____________________________________

Primary Fuel Filter  _________________________________________

Water Separator Element  ________________________________

Secondary Fuel Filter Element  __________________________

Lubrication Oil Filter Element  ___________________________

Auxiliary Oil Filter Element  _______________________________

Total Lubrication System Capacity  _____________________

Total Cooling System Capacity  _________________________

Air Cleaner Element  _______________________________________

Fan Drive Belt  ______________________________________________

Alternator Belt  ______________________________________________

i02272778

Emissions Certification Film

Label for compliant engines

g01127835

Illustration 12

Typical example

This label is installed on engines  that comply with emissions.

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SEBU8121

19

Operation Section

Lifting and Storage

Operation Section

Lifting and Storage

Some removals require lifting the fixtures in order to

obtain correct balance and safety.

To remove the engine ONLY, use the lifting eyes that

are on the engine.

Lifting eyes are designed and installed for specific

engine arrangements. Alterations to the lifting eyes

and/or the engine make the lifting eyes and the lifting

fixtures obsolete. If alterations are made,  ensure

that correct lifting devices are  provided. Consult

your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for

information regarding fixtures for correct  engine

lifting.

i02164186

Engine Lifting

i02248407

Engine Storage

If the engine will not be started for several weeks, the

lubricating oil will drain from the cylinder walls and

from the piston rings. Rust can form on the cylinder

walls. Rust on the cylinder walls will cause increased

engine wear and a reduction in engine service life.

Lubrication System

To help prevent excessive engine  wear, use the

following guidelines:

Complete all of the lubrication recommendations that

are listed in this Operation and Maintenance Manual,

“Maintenance Interval Schedule” (Maintenance

Section).

If an engine is out of operation and if use of the engine

is not planned, special precautions should be made.

If the engine will be stored for more than one month,

a complete protection procedure is recommended.

g01097527

Illustration 13

NOTICE

Use the following guidelines :

Never bend the eyebolts and the brackets. Only load

the eyebolts and the brackets under tension. Remem-

ber that the capacity of an eyebolt is less as the angle

between the supporting members and  the object be-

comes less than 90 degrees.

•  Completely clean the outside of the engine.

•  Drain the fuel  system completely and refill

the system with  preservative fuel.1772204

POWERPART Lay-Up 1  can be mixed with

the normal fuel in order to change  the fuel into

preservative fuel.

When it  is necessary to  remove a component at  an

angle, only use a link bracket that is properly rated for

the weight.

•  If preservative fuel is not available, the fuel system

can be filled with normal fuel. This fuel must  be

discarded at the end of the storage period together

with the fuel filter elements.

Use a hoist to  remove heavy components. Use

an adjustable lifting beam  to lift the engine. All

supporting members (chains and cables) should be

parallel to each other. The chains and cables should

be perpendicular to the top of the object that is being

lifted.

•  Operate the engine until  the engine reaches

normal operating temperature. Stop any leaks from

fuel, lubricating oil or air systems. Stop the engine

and drain the lubricating oil from the oil pan.

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20

SEBU8121

Operation Section

Lifting and Storage

•  Renew the canister(s) of the lubricating oil filter.

4.  Open the tap or remove the drain  plug at the

bottom of the radiator in order to drain the radiator.

If the radiator does not have a tap or a drain plug,

disconnect the hose at the bottom of the radiator.

•  Fill the oil pan to the  Full Mark on the dipstick

with new, clean lubricating oil.  Add  1762811

POWERPART Lay-Up 2 to  the oil in order to

protect the engine against corrosion. If  1762811

POWERPART Lay-Up 2 is not available, use  a

preservative of the correct specification instead

of the lubricating oil. If  a preservative is used,

this must be drained completely at the end of the

storage period and the oil pan must be refilled to

the correct level with normal lubricating oil.

5.  Flush the cooling system with clean water.

6.  Fit the drain plugs and the filler cap. Close the tap

or connect the radiator hose.

7.  Fill the cooling system  with an approved

antifreeze mixture because this gives protection

against corrosion. The maximum flow rate is 1 L

(0.2200 Imp gal) per minute in  order to fill the

system.

Cooling System

To help prevent excessive engine  wear, use the

following guidelines:

Note: Certain corrosion inhibitors  could cause

damage to some engine components. Contact the

Service Department of Perkins for advice.

NOTICE

Do not drain the coolant while the engine is still hot and

the system is under pressure because dangerous hot

coolant can be discharged.

8.  Operate the engine for a short period in order to

circulate the lubricating oil and the coolant in the

engine.

9.  Disconnect the battery. Put the battery into safe

storage in a fully charged condition. Before the

battery is put into storage, protect the terminals

against corrosion.1734115 POWERPART Lay-Up

3 can be used on the terminals.

If freezing temperatures are expected, check  the

cooling system for adequate  protection against

freezing. See this Operation  and Maintenance

Manual, “General Coolant Information” (Maintenance

Section).

10. Clean the crankcase breather if one is installed.

NOTICE

Seal the end of the pipe.

To prevent frost damage, ensure that all the coolant is

removed from the engine. This is important if the sys-

tem is drained after it has been flushed with water, or if

an antifreeze solution too weak to protect the system

from frost has been used.

11. Remove the fuel injector nozzles and  spray

1762811

POWERPART Lay-Up 2 for one or two

seconds into each cylinder bore with the piston

at BDC.

12. Slowly rotate the crankshaft for one complete

revolution and then replace  the fuel injector

nozzles.

Induction System

•  Remove the air filter  assembly. If necessary,

remove the pipes that  are installed between

the air filter assembly  and the turbocharger.

Spray 1762811 POWERPART Lay-Up 2 into the

turbocharger. The duration of the spray is printed

on the container. Seal  the turbocharger with

waterproof tape.

g01003928

Illustration 14

Exhaust System

1.  Ensure that the engine is on level ground.

2.  Remove the filler cap of the cooling system.

•  Remove the exhaust  pipe. Spray  1762811

POWERP

ART Lay-Up 2 into the turbocharger. The

duration of the spray is printed on the container.

Seal the turbocharger with waterproof tape.

3.  Remove the drain plug (1) from the side of the

cylinder block in order to drain the engine. Ensure

that the drain hole is not restricted.

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SEBU8121

21

Operation Section

Lifting and Storage

General Items

•  If the lubricating oil filler is installed on the rocker

cover, remove the filler cap. If the lubricating oil filler

cap is not installed on the rocker cover, remove

the rocker cover. Spray 1762811  POWERPART

Lay-Up 2 around the  rocker shaft assembly.

Replace the filler cap or the rocker cover.

•  Seal the vent of the fuel tank or the fuel filler cap

with waterproof tape.

•  Remove the alternator drive belts and put the drive

belts into storage.

•  In order to prevent corrosion, spray the engine with

1734115 POWERPART Lay-Up 3. Do not spray

the area inside the alternator.

When the engine protection has been completed in

accordance with these instructions, this ensures that

no corrosion will occur. Perkins are not responsible

for damage which may occur when an engine is in

storage after a period in service.

Your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor can

assist in preparing the engine for extended storage

periods.

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22

SEBU8121

Operation Section

Gauges and Indicators

Gauges and Indicators

1.  Reduce the load and the engine rpm.

2.  Inspect the cooling system for leaks.

i02164190

3.  Determine if the engine must  be shut down

immediately or if the engine can  be cooled by

reducing the load.

Gauges and Indicators

Tachometer  – This gauge indicates engine

speed (rpm). When the throttle control lever

is moved to the full throttle position without

load, the engine is running at high idle. The engine is

running at the full load rpm when the throttle control

lever is at the full throttle  position with maximum

rated load.

Your engine may not have the same gauges or all of

the gauges that are described. For more information

about the gauge package, see the OEM information.

Gauges provide indications of engine performance.

Ensure that the gauges are in good working order.

Determine the normal operating range by observing

the gauges over a period of time.

NOTICE

To help  prevent  engine damage,  never exceed  the

high  idle  rpm. Overspeeding  can  result  in  serious

damage to the  engine. The engine  can be operated

at  high idle  without  damage,  but  should never  be

allowed to exceed high idle rpm.

Noticeable changes in gauge  readings indicate

potential gauge or engine problems. Problems may

also be indicated by gauge readings that  change

even if the  readings are within specifications.

Determine and correct the cause of any significant

change in the readings. Consult your Perkins dealer

or your Perkins distributor for assistance.

Ammeter  – This gauge indicates the

amount of charge or  discharge in the

NOTICE

battery charging circuit. Operation of the

indicator should be to the right side of “0” (zero).

If no  oil pressure  is  indicated, STOP  the engine.  If

maximum  coolant temperature  is  exceeded, STOP

the engine. Engine damage can result.

Fuel Level  – This gauge indicates the fuel

level in the fuel tank. The fuel level gauge

operates when the “START/STOP” switch

is in the “ON” position.

Engine Oil Pressure  – The oil pressure

should be greatest after a cold engine is

started. The typical engine oil pressure with

SAE10W30 is 207 to 413 kPa (30 to 60 psi) at rated

rpm.

Service Hour Meter – The gauge indicates

operating time of the engine.

A lower oil pressure is normal at low idle. If the load

is stable and the gauge reading changes, perform

the following procedure:

1.  Remove the load.

2.  Reduce engine speed to low idle.

3.  Check and maintain the oil level.

Jacket Water Coolant Temperature  –

Typical temperature range is 71 to 96°C

(160 to 205°F). The maximum allowable

temperature with the pressurized cooling system at

48 kPa (7 psi) is 110°C (230°F). Higher temperatures

may occur under certain  conditions. The water

temperature reading may vary according to load. The

reading should never exceed the boiling point for the

pressurized system that is being used.

If the engine is operating above the normal  range

and steam becomes apparent, perform the following

procedure:

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SEBU8121

23

Operation Section

Features and Controls

Features and Controls

“Warning”

The “Warning” lamp and the warning signal (orange

lamp) turn “ON” and the warning signal is activated

continuously in order to alert the operator that one or

more of the engine parameters is not within normal

operating range.

i02259828

Monitoring System

“Warning/Derate”

The “Diagnostic” lamp turns “ON” and the warning

signal (red lamp) is activated. After the warning, the

engine power will be derated. The warning lamp will

begin to flash when the derating occurs.

If the Shutdown mode has been selected  and the

warning indicator activates, engine shutdown may

take as little as 20 seconds from the time the warn-

ing indicator  is activated.  Depending on  the ap-

plication, special precautions should  be taken to

avoid personal injury. The engine can be restarted

following shutdown for emergency maneuvers, if

necessary.

The engine will be derated if the  engine exceeds

preset operational limits. The  engine derate is

achieved by restricting the amount of  fuel that is

available for each injection.  The amount of this

reduction of fuel is dependent on the severity of the

fault that has caused the engine derate, typically up

to a limit of 50%. This reduction in fuel results in a

predetermined reduction in engine power.

NOTICE

The  Engine Monitoring  System  is not  a  guarantee

against  catastrophic   failures.  Programmed  delays

and derate schedules are designed to minimize false

alarms and provide  time for the operator  to stop the

engine.

“Warning/Derate/Shutdown”

The “Diagnostic” lamp turns “ON” and the warning

signal (red lamp) is activated.  After the warning,

the engine power will be derated. The engine  will

continue at the rpm of the set derate until a shutdown

of the engine occurs. The engine can be restarted

after a shutdown for use in an emergency.

The following parameters are monitored:

•  Coolant temperature

•  Intake manifold air temperature

•  Intake manifold air pressure

•  Oil pressure

A shutdown of the engine  may occur in as little

as 20 seconds. The engine can be restarted  after

a shutdown for use in  an emergency. However,

the cause of the initial  shutdown may still exist.

The engine may shut down again in as little as 20

seconds.

•  Fuel temperature

•  Engine speed/timing

If there is a signal for low oil pressure or for coolant

temperature, there will be a two  second delay in

order to verify the condition.

Programmable Options  and

Systems Operation

For each of  the programmed modes, refer to

Troubleshooting Guide, “Indicator Lamps” for more

information on Indicator Lamps.

For more information or assistance for repairs, consult

your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor.

If the  Warning/Derate/Shutdown mode  has been

selected  and   the  warning   indicator  activates,

bring the engine to a stop whenever possible. De-

pending on  the  application, special  precautions

should be taken to avoid personal injury.

The engine can be programmed to  the following

modes:

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24

SEBU8121

Operation Section

Features and Controls

i02259829

Sensors and  Electrical

Components

Sensor Locations for  the 1104

Engine

g00894185

Illustration 15

Left side view of the  1104 engine

Typical example of a  1104 engine

(1) Electronic control module (ECM)

(2) Intake manifold temperature sensor

(3) Intake manifold pressure sensor

(4) Speed/timing sensor

(5) Engine oil pressure sensor

(6) Machine interface connector

g00915275

Illustration 16

(7) Typical location of the voltage load protection module by  the

ECM

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SEBU8121

25

Operation Section

Features and Controls

g00915291

Illustration 17

Right side view of  the 1104 engine

Typical example of a  1104 engine

(8) Engine coolant temperature sensor

Failure of Sensors

Engine Oil Pressure Sensor

All Sensors

The engine oil pressure  sensor is an absolute

pressure sensor that measures  the engine oil

pressure in the main  oil gallery. The engine oil

pressure sensor detects engine oil  pressure for

diagnostic purposes. The engine oil pressure sensor

sends a signal to the ECM.

A failure of any of the sensors may be caused by one

of the following malfunctions:

•  Sensor output is open.

•  Sensor output is shorted to “- battery” or “+ battery”.

Intake Manifold  Temperature

Sensor

•  Measured reading of the  sensor is out of the

specification.

The intake manifold temperature sensor measures

the inlet air temperature. A  signal is sent to the

Electronic Control Module  (ECM). The intake

manifold temperature sensor is also  used by the

ECM to determine initiation of the Cold Start Strategy

and control for appropriate start of injection timing

while the engine is warming up.

Intake Manifold Pressure Sensor

The intake manifold pressure sensor  provides a

signal which corresponds to the  intake manifold

pressure to the ECM. The ECM can control injection

timing and the amount  of fuel that is  injected.

When the throttle is increased and when the engine

demands more fuel, the fuel limit is controlled in order

to reduce overall smoke levels of the engine exhaust.

This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


 

26

SEBU8121

Operation Section

Features and Controls

Coolant Temperature Sensor

The coolant temperature sensor monitors the engine

coolant temperature. The output of the  ECM can

indicate a high coolant temperature through a relay

or a lamp. The coolant temperature sensor is used

by the ECM to determine initiation of the Cold Start

Condition and control for appropriate start of injection

timing while the engine is warming up.

Speed/Timing Sensor

If the ECM does not receive a signal from the primary

speed/timing sensor the “DIAGNOSTIC” lamp will

indicate a diagnostic fault code which will be logged

in the ECM memory.

If the ECM does not receive a signal from the primary

speed/timing sensor, the ECM will read the signal

from the secondary speed/timing sensor. The ECM

continually checks in order to determine if there is a

signal from both sensors. If either sensor fails, the

faulty sensor should be replaced.

Intermittent failure of the sensors will cause erratic

engine control.

Throttle Position Sensor

The throttle position sensor (TPS) eliminates the

mechanical throttle and governor linkages. The TPS

interprets the position of the throttle  lever into an

electrical signal that is sent to the ECM. The throttle

position signal and the engine speed/timing signal

are processed by the ECM  in order to precisely

control engine speed.

This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


 

SEBU8121

27

Operation Section

Engine Diagnostics

Engine Diagnostics

i01902949

Fault Logging

i01902950

Self-Diagnostics

The system provides the capability of Fault Logging.

When the Electronic  Control Module (ECM)

generates an active diagnostic code, the code will

be logged in the memory of the  ECM. The codes

that have been logged by the ECM can be identified

by the electronic service tool. The active codes that

have been logged will be cleared  when the fault

has been rectified or the fault is  no longer active.

The following logged faults can not be cleared from

the memory of the ECM  without using a factory

password: Overspeed, low engine oil pressure, and

high engine coolant temperature.

Perkins Electronic Engines have the capability  to

perform a self-diagnostics test. When the system

detects an active  problem, a diagnostic lamp

is activated. Diagnostic codes  will be stored in

permanent memory in the Electronic Control Module

(ECM). The diagnostic codes  can be retrieved

by using the  electronic service tool. Refer  to

Troubleshooting Guide, “Electronic Service Tools” for

further information.

Some installations have electronic displays  that

provide direct readouts of the  engine diagnostic

codes. Refer to  the manual that  is provided

by the OEM for  more information on retrieving

engine diagnostic codes. Alternatively refer to the

Troubleshooting Guide, “Indicator Lamps” for further

information.

i01902951

Engine Operation with Active

Diagnostic Codes

If a diagnostic lamp illuminates during normal engine

operation, the system has identified a situation that is

not within the specification. Use the electronic service

tool to check the active diagnostic codes.

Active codes represent problems that currently exist.

These problems should be investigated first.

Logged codes represent the following items:

•  Intermittent problems

The active diagnostic code should be investigated.

The cause of the problem should be corrected as

soon as possible. If the cause of the active diagnostic

code is repaired  and there is only one  active

diagnostic code, the diagnostic lamp will turn off.

•  Recorded events

•  Performance history

Operation of the engine and  performance of the

engine can be limited  as a result of the  active

diagnostic code that is generated. Acceleration rates

may be significantly slower and power outputs may be

automatically reduced. Refer to the Troubleshooting

Guide, “Troubleshooting with a Diagnostic Code” for

more information on the relationship between each

active diagnostic code and the possible effect  on

engine performance.

The problems may have been repaired since  the

logging of the code. These codes do not indicate that

a repair is needed. The codes are guides or signals

when a situation exists. Codes may be  helpful to

troubleshoot problems.

When the problems have  been corrected, the

corresponding logged fault codes should be cleared.

i01902948

Diagnostic Lamp

A diagnostic lamp is used to indicate the existence

of an active fault.  Refer to the Troubleshooting

Guide, “Indicator Lamps” for more information. A fault

diagnostic code will remain active until the problem

is repaired. The diagnostic code may be retrieved

by using the electronic service  tool. Refer to the

Troubleshooting Guide, “Electronic Service Tools”

for more information.

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28

SEBU8121

Operation Section

Engine Diagnostics

i01902995

Engine Operation  with

Intermittent Diagnostic Codes

If a diagnostic lamp illuminates during normal engine

operation and the diagnostic  lamp shuts off, an

intermittent fault may have occurred. If a fault has

occurred, the fault will be logged into the memory of

the Electronic Control Module (ECM).

In most cases, it is not necessary to stop the engine

because of an intermittent  code. However, the

operator should retrieve the  logged fault codes

and the operator should reference the appropriate

information in order to identify the nature of the event.

The operator should log any observation that could

have caused the lamp to light.

•  Low power

•  Limits of the engine speed

•  Excessive smoke, etc

This information can be useful to help troubleshoot

the situation. The information can also be used for

future reference. For more information on diagnostic

codes, refer to the Troubleshooting Guide for this

engine.

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SEBU8121

29

Operation Section

Engine Starting

Engine Starting

•  Do not start the engine or move any of the controls

if there is a “DO NOT OPERATE” warning tag or

similar warning tag attached to the start switch or

to the controls.

i02194223

Before Starting Engine

•  Ensure that the areas around the rotating parts are

clear.

•  All of the guards must be put in place. Check for

damaged guards or for missing guards. Repair

any damaged guards. Replace damaged guards

and/or missing guards.

Before the engine is started, perform the  required

daily maintenance  and any other  periodic

maintenance that is due. Refer  to the Operation

and Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance Interval

Schedule” for more information.

Disconnect any battery chargers  that are not

protected against the high  current drain that

is created when the  electric starting motor is

engaged. Check electrical cables and check the

battery for poor connections and for corrosion.

•  For the maximum service life of the engine, make a

thorough inspection within the engine compartment

before the engine is started. Look for the following

items: oil leaks, coolant leaks, loose  bolts, and

excessive dirt and/or grease. Remove any excess

dirt and/or grease buildup. Repair any faults that

were identified during the inspection.

Reset all of the shutoffs or alarm components (if

equipped).

•  Check the engine lubrication oil level. Maintain the

oil level between the “ADD” mark and the “FULL”

mark on the engine oil level gauge.

•  Inspect the cooling system hoses for cracks and

for loose clamps.

•  Inspect the alternator and accessory drive belts for

cracks, breaks, and other damage.

•  Check the coolant level. Observe the coolant level

in the header tank (if  equipped). Maintain the

coolant level to the “FULL” mark on the  header

tank.

•  Inspect the wiring for loose connections and for

worn wires or frayed wires.

•  If the engine is not equipped with a header tank

maintain the coolant level within 13 mm (0.5 inch)

of the bottom of the  filler pipe. If the engine is

equipped with a sight glass, maintain the coolant

level in the sight glass.

•  Check the fuel supply. Drain water from the water

separator (if equipped). Open the fuel supply valve

(if equipped).

NOTICE

•  Observe the air cleaner  service indicator (if

equipped). Service the air cleaner when the yellow

diaphragm enters the red zone, or when the red

piston locks in the visible position.

All valves in the fuel return  line must be open before

and during engine operation to help prevent high fuel

pressure. High fuel pressure may cause filter housing

failure or other damage.

•  Ensure that any equipment that is driven by the

engine has been disengaged from the  engine.

Minimize electrical loads or remove any electrical

loads.

If the engine has not been started for several weeks,

fuel may have drained from  the fuel system. Air

may have entered the filter housing. Also, when fuel

filters have been changed, some air pockets will be

trapped in the engine. In these instances, prime the

fuel system. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance

Manual, “Fuel System - Prime” for more information

on priming the fuel system.

i02272761

Starting the Engine

Note: Do not adjust the engine speed control during

start-up. The electronic control module (ECM) will

control the engine speed during start-up.

Engine exhaust contains products of combustion

which may be harmful to your health. Always start

and operate  the engine  in a well  ventilated area

and, if in an enclosed area, vent the exhaust to the

outside.

Starting a Cold Engine

1.  Disengage any equipment that is driven by the

engine.

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SEBU8121

Operation Section

Engine Starting

2.  Turn the keyswitch to the RUN position. Leave the

i01903593

keyswitch in the RUN position for 20 seconds.

Starting with  Jump Start

Cables

3.  Turn the keyswitch to the START position in order

to engage the electric starting motor and crank

the engine.

NOTICE

Do not  engage the  starting motor  when  flywheel is

turning. Do not start the engine under load.

Improper jump start cable connections can cause

an explosion resulting in personal injury.

If the engine fails  to start within 30 seconds, release

the starter  switch or button  and wait two  minutes to

allow the starting  motor to cool  before attempting to

start the engine again.

Prevent sparks  near the  batteries. Sparks  could

cause vapors to explode. Do not allow jump start

cable ends to contact each other or the engine.

4.  Allow the keyswitch to return to the RUN position

Note: If it is  possible, first diagnose the reason

for the starting failure. Refer  to Troubleshooting,

“Engine Will Not Crank  and Engine Cranks But

Will Not Start” for further  information. Make any

necessary repairs. If the engine will not  start only

due to the condition of the battery, either charge the

battery, or start the engine with jump start  cables.

The condition of the  battery can be rechecked

after the  engine has been  switched OFF.

after the engine starts.

5.  Repeat step 2 through step 4 if the engine fails

to start.

Starting a Warm Engine

1.  Disengage any equipment that is driven by the

engine.

2.  Turn the keyswitch to the START position in order

to engage the electric starting motor and crank

the engine.

NOTICE

Using a battery source  with the same voltage as the

electric starting  motor. Use  ONLY equal  voltage for

jump starting. The use of higher  voltage will damage

the electrical system.

NOTICE

Do not  engage the  starting motor  when  flywheel is

turning. Do not start the engine under load.

Do not reverse the battery cables. The alternator can

be damaged.  Attach ground  cable last  and remove

first.

If the engine fails  to start within 30 seconds, release

the starter  switch or button  and wait two  minutes to

allow the starting  motor to cool  before attempting to

start the engine again.

When using an external  electrical source to start the

engine, turn  the generator  set control  switch to  the

“OFF” position. Turn all electrical accessories OFF be-

fore attaching the jump start cables.

3.  Allow the keyswitch to return to the RUN position

after the engine starts.

Ensure that the main power switch is in the OFF posi-

tion before attaching the jump  start cables to the en-

gine being started.

4.  Repeat step 2 and step 3 if the engine fails to start.

1.  Turn the start switch on the stalled engine to the

OFF position. Turn off all the engine’s accessories.

2.  Connect one positive end of the jump start cable

to the positive cable terminal of the discharged

battery. Connect the other positive end of the jump

start cable to the positive cable terminal of  the

electrical source.

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SEBU8121

31

Operation Section

Engine Starting

3.  Connect one negative end of the jump start cable

to the negative cable terminal of  the electrical

source. Connect the other negative end of the

jump start cable to the  engine block or to the

chassis ground. This procedure helps to prevent

potential sparks from igniting the combustible

gases that are produced by some batteries.

NOTICE

Do not  crank the engine  for more than  30 seconds.

Allow the electric starting motor to cool for two minutes

before cranking the engine again.

3.  While the glow plug indicator light is illuminated,

turn the engine start switch to the START position

and crank the engine.

4.  Start the engine.

5.  Immediately after the stalled engine is started,

Note: If the glow  plug indicator light illuminates

rapidly for 2 to 3 seconds, or if the glow plug indicator

light fails to illuminate, a malfunction exists in the cold

start system. Do not use ether or other starting fluids

to start the engine.

disconnect the jump start cables in reverse order.

After jump starting, the alternator may not be able to

fully recharge batteries that are severely discharged.

The batteries must be replaced or charged to  the

proper voltage with a battery charger after the engine

is stopped. Many batteries which are  considered

unusable are still rechargeable. Refer to Operation

and Maintenance Manual, “Battery - Replace” and

Testing and Adjusting Manual, “Battery - Test”.

4.  When the engine starts, release the engine start

switch key.

5.  If the engine does not start, release the engine

start switch and allow the starter motor to cool.

Then, repeat steps 2 through step 4.

i02273353

Cold Weather Starting

6.  If the engine is equipped with a throttle allow the

engine to idle for three to five minutes, or allow the

engine to idle until the water temperature indicator

begins to rise. The engine should run at low idle

smoothly until speed is gradually increased to high

idle. Allow the white smoke to disperse  before

proceeding with normal operation.

Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as

ether. Such use could  result in an explosion and

personal injury.

7.  Operate the engine at low load until all systems

reach oper

ating temperature. Check the gauges

during the warm-up period.

Startability will be improved at temperatures below

−18 °C (0 °F) from the use of a jacket water heater

or extra battery capacity.

8.  Turn the engine start switch to the OFF position in

order to stop the engine.

When Group 2 diesel fuel is used, the following items

provide a means of minimizing starting  problems

and fuel problems in cold weather: engine oil  pan

heaters, jacket water heaters, fuel heaters, and fuel

line insulation.

Use the procedure that follows  for cold weather

starting.

1.  If equipped, move the throttle lever to the  full

throttle position before you start the engine.

2.  If equipped, turn the engine start switch to the

HEAT position. Hold the engine start switch in the

HEAT position for 6 seconds until the glow plug

indicator light illuminates. This will activate the

glow plugs and aid in the starting of the engine.

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SEBU8121

Operation Section

Engine Starting

i01903609

After Starting Engine

Note: In temperatures from 0 to 60°C (32 to 140°F),

the warm-up time is approximately three minutes. In

temperatures below 0°C (32°F), additional warm-up

time may be required.

When the engine idles during warm-up, observe the

following conditions:

•  Check for any fluid or for any air leaks at idle rpm

and at one-half full rpm (no load on the  engine)

before operating the engine under load. This is not

possible in some applications.

•  Operate the engine at low idle until  all systems

achieve operating temperatures. Check all gauges

during the warm-up period.

No, te: Gauge readings should be  observed and

the data should be recorded frequently  while the

engine is operating. Comparing the data over time

will help to determine  normal readings for each

gauge. Comparing data over time  will also help

detect abnormal operating developments. Significant

changes in the readings should be investigated.

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33

Operation Section

Engine Operation

Engine Operation

i02164252

Fuel Conservation Practices

i02176671

Engine Operation

The efficiency of the  engine can affect the fuel

economy. Perkins design  and technology in

manufacturing provides maximum fuel efficiency in

all applications. Follow the recommended procedures

in order to attain optimum performance for the life

of the engine.

Correct operation and maintenance are key factors

in obtaining the maximum  life and economy of

the engine. If the directions in  the Operation and

Maintenance Manual are followed, costs can  be

minimized and engine service life can be maximized.

•  Avoid spilling fuel.

The engine can be operated at the rated rpm after the

engine reaches operating temperature. The engine

will reach normal operating temperature  sooner

during a low engine speed (rpm) and during a low

power demand. This procedure is more effective than

idling the engine at no load. The engine should reach

operating temperature in a few minutes.

Fuel expands when the fuel is warmed up. The fuel

may overflow from the fuel tank. Inspect fuel lines for

leaks. Repair the fuel lines, as needed.

•  Be aware of the properties of the different fuels.

Use only the recommended fuels.

•  Avoid unnecessary idling.

Gauge readings should be observed and the data

should be recorded frequently  while the engine

is operating. Comparing the  data over time will

help to determine normal readings for each gauge.

Comparing data over time  will also help detect

abnormal operating developments. Significant

changes in the readings should be investigated.

Shut off the engine rather than idle for long periods of

time.

•  Observe the service indicator frequently. Keep the

air cleaner elements clean.

•  Maintain a good electrical system.

i01929404

One damaged battery cell will overwork the alternator.

This will consume excess power and excess fuel.

Engine Warm-up

•  Ensure that the drive belts are correctly adjusted.

The drive belts should be in good condition.

1.  Run the engine at low idle for three to five minutes,

or run the engine at low idle until the jacket water

temperature starts to rise.

•  Ensure that all of the connections of the hoses are

tight. The connections should not leak.

•  Ensure that the driven  equipment is in good

working order.

More time  may be necessary when  the

temperature is below −18°C (0°F).

•  Cold engines consume excess fuel. Utilize heat

from the jacket water system  and the exhaust

system, when possible. Keep cooling  system

components clean and keep  cooling system

components in good repair. Never operate  the

engine without water temperature regulators.

All of these items will  help maintain operating

temperatures.

2.  Check all of the gauges during  the warm-up

period.

3.  Perform a walk-around inspection. Check the

engine for fluid leaks and air leaks.

4.  Increase the rpm to the rated rpm. Check  for

fluid leaks and air leaks.  The engine may be

operated at full rated rpm and at full load when

the temperature of the water jacket reaches 60°C

(140°F).

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SEBU8121

Operation Section

Engine Stopping

Engine Stopping

Stopping the Engine

NOTICE

i01903608

After Stopping Engine

i01929389

Note: Before you check the engine oil, do not operate

the engine for at least 10 minutes in order to allow

the engine oil to return to the oil pan.

•  Check the crankcase oil level. Maintain the oil level

between the “ADD” mark and the “FULL” mark on

the oil level dipstick.

Stopping  the engine  immediately  after it  has  been

working under load can result in overheating and ac-

celerated wear of the engine components.

•  If necessary, perform minor adjustments. Repair

any leaks and tighten any loose bolts.

If the engine  has been operating at  high rpm and/or

high loads, run  at low idle  for at least three  minutes

to reduce  and stabilize  internal  engine temperature

before stopping the engine.

•  Note the required  service interval. Perform

the maintenance that is  in the Operation and

Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance Interval

Schedule”.

Avoiding  hot  engine  shutdowns  will  maximize  tur-

bocharger shaft and bearing life.

•  Fill the fuel  tank in order  to help prevent

accumulation of moisture in the fuel. Do not overfill

the fuel tank.

Prior to stopping an engine that is being operated

at low loads, operate the engine at low  idle for 30

seconds before stopping. If the engine  has been

operating at highway speeds and/or at high loads,

operate the engine at  low idle for at least three

minutes. This procedure will  cause the internal

engine temperature to be reduced and stabilized.

NOTICE

Only use antifreeze/coolant mixtures recommended in

the Coolant  Specifications that are  in the  Operation

and Maintenance Manual. Failure to do so can cause

engine damage.

Ensure that the  engine stopping procedure is

understood. Stop the engine according to the shutoff

system on the engine or refer to the instructions that

are provided by the OEM.

•  Allow the engine to cool. Check the coolant level.

•  If freezing temperatures are expected, check the

coolant fo

r the correct antifreeze protection. The

cooling system must be protected against freezing

to the lowest expected outside temperature. Add

the correct coolant/water mixture, if necessary.

•  To stop the engine, turn the ignition key switch to

the OFF position.

i01903586

Emergency Stopping

•  Perform all required periodic maintenance on all

driven equipment. This maintenance is outlined in

the instructions from the OEM.

NOTICE

Emergency shutoff controls are for EMERGENCY use

ONLY. DO  NOT  use emergency  shutoff devices  or

controls for normal stopping procedure.

The OEM may have equipped the application with

an emergency stop button. For more  information

about the emergency stop button, refer to the OEM

information.

Ensure that any components for the external system

that support the engine operation are secured after

the engine is stopped.

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SEBU8121

35

Operation Section

Cold Weather Operation

Cold Weather Operation

•  Check all rubber parts (hoses, fan drive belts, etc)

weekly.

•  Check all electrical wiring and connections for any

fraying or damaged insulation.

i02266961

Cold Weather Operation

•  Keep all batteries fully charged and warm.

•  Fill the fuel tank at the end of each shift.

Perkins Diesel Engines can operate effectively in

cold weather. During cold weather, the starting and

the operation of the diesel engine is dependent on

the following items:

Check the air cleaners and the air  intake daily.

Check the air intake more often when you operate

in snow.

•  The type of fuel that is used

•  The viscosity of the engine oil

•  The operation of the glow plugs.

Personal  injury  or property  damage  can  result

from alcohol or starting fluids.

Alcohol or starting fluids are highly flammable and

toxic and if improperly stored could result in injury

or property damage.

The purpose of this section will cover the following

information:

•  Explain potential problems that are caused by cold

weather operation.

•  Suggest steps which can be  taken in order to

minimize starting problems and operating problems

when the ambient air temperature is colder than

0 to −55 °C (32 to −67 °F).

Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as

ether. Such use could  result in an explosion and

personal injury.

The operation and maintenance of  an engine in

freezing temperatures is complex. This is because

of the following conditions: the unlimited differences

in weather conditions, engine applications,  and

the supplies that are available in your area. These

factors and recommendations from your  Perkins

dealer or your Perkins distributor are based on past

proven practices. The information that is contained in

this section should be combined in order to provide

guidelines for cold weather operations.

•  For jump starting with cables  in cold weather,

refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,

“Starting with Jump Start Cables.” for instructions.

Viscosity of the Engine Lubrication

Oil

Correct engine oil viscosity is essential. Oil viscosity

affects the amount of  torque that is needed to

crank the engine.  Refer to this Operation and

Maintenance Manual, “Fluid Recommendations” for

the recommended viscosity of oil.

Hints for Cold Weather Operation

•  If the engine will start, operate the engine until a

minimum operating temperature of 71 °C (160 °F)

is achieved. Achieving operating temperature will

help prevent the intake valves and exhaust valves

from sticking.

Recommendations for the Coolant

Provide cooling system protection for  the lowest

expected outside temperature. Refer to this Operation

and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid Recommendations”

for the recommended coolant mixture.

•  The cooling system and the lubrication  system

for the engine do not lose heat immediately upon

shutdown. This means that an engine can be shut

down for a few hours and the engine can still have

the ability to start readily.  If the engine is shut

down for at least eight hours, the engine should be

considered cooled to outside temperature.

In cold weather, check the  coolant often for the

correct glycol concentration in  order to ensure

adequate freeze protection.

Engine Block Heaters

•  Install the correct lubricant in each compartment

before the beginning of cold weather.

Engine block heaters  (if equipped) heat  the

engine jacket water that surrounds the combustion

chambers. This provides the following functions:

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36

SEBU8121

Operation Section

Cold Weather Operation

•  Startability is improved.

•  Warm up time is reduced.

For this reason,  when the engine is  started,

the engine must  be operated until the coolant

temperature is 71 °C (160 °F)  minimum. Carbon

deposits on the valve stems will be kept at a minimum

and the free operation of the valves and the valve

components will be maintained.

An electric block heater  can be activated once

the engine is stopped. An  effective block heater

is typically a  1250/1500 W unit. Consult your

Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for more

information.

In addition, the engine must be thoroughly warmed in

order to keep other engine parts in better condition

and the service life of the engine will  be generally

extended. Lubrication will be improved. There will be

less acid and less sludge in the oil. This will provide

longer service life for the engine bearings, the piston

rings, and other parts. However, limit unnecessary

idle time to ten minutes in order to reduce wear and

unnecessary fuel consumption.

Idling the Engine

When idling after the  engine is started in cold

weather, increase the engine rpm from 1000 to 1200

rpm. This will warm up  the engine more quickly.

Maintaining an elevated low idle speed for extended

periods will be easier with the installation of a hand

throttle. The engine should not be “raced” in order to

speed up the warm up process.

Purge Valve and Insulated Heater Lines

The engine is equipped with a water temperature

regulator in order to allow the engine to reach  the

correct operating temperature quickly. The water

temperature regulator remains in the closed position

until the jacket  water coolant temperature has

reached the engine’s operating temperature. The

jacket water circulates from the top of the cylinder

block, to the water temperature regulator housing,

and back to the bottom of the cylinder block via the

bypass. The water temperature regulator  allows

some flow of water and/or air to pass  through the

water temperature regulator in order to  ensure a

continuous flow of coolant within the cylinder block.

This is achieved via a  small “jiggle” valve in the

water temperature regulator. The water temperature

regulator moves to the open position when the jacket

water coolant temperature has reached the correct

operating temperature. The water  temperature

regulator moves to the open position in order to allow

the passage of the coolant through the radiator  to

dissipate excess heat.

While the engine is idling, the application of a light

load (parasitic load) will assist in  maintaining the

minimum operating temperature. The  minimum

operating temperature is 71 °C (160 °F).

Recommendations for Coolant

Warm Up

Warm up an engine that has cooled below normal

operating temperatures due to inactivity. This should

be performed before the engine is returned  to full

operation. During operation in very cold temperature

conditions, damage to engine valve mechanisms can

result from engine operation for short intervals. This

can happen if the engine is started and the engine is

stopped many times without being operated in order

to warm up completely.

When the engine is operated below normal operating

temperatures, fuel and oil are not completely burned

in the combustion chamber. This fuel and oil causes

soft carbon deposits to form  on the valve stems.

Generally, the deposits do not cause problems and

the deposits are burned  off during operation at

normal engine operating temperatures.

The above procedure is good  for normal engine

operating conditions in temperate climates. During

periods of operations in a cold climate with a light

engine load, the coolant must bypass the radiator in

order to help prevent excessive cooling of the engine.

Coolant that passes through the radiator must be

minimized in order to maintain the engine operating

temperature in cold weather.

When the engine is started and the engine is stopped

many times without being operated in order to warm

up completely, the carbon deposits become thicker.

This will cause the following problems:

Excessive cooling of the engine can be prevented

by a valve that allows unnecessary coolant flow to

be diverted from the water temperature regulator

and back to the bottom of the engine block without

passing through the radiator.

•  Free operation of the valves is prevented.

•  Valves become stuck.

•  Pushrods are bent.

Note: Perkins discourages the use  of all airflow

restriction devices such  as radiator shutters.

Restriction of the airflow can result in the following:

high exhaust temperatures, power loss, excessive

fan usage, and reduction in fuel economy.

•  Other damage to valve train  components can

result.

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SEBU8121

37

Operation Section

Cold Weather Operation

Cab heater lines for very  cold weather are also

beneficial. These lines provide more available heat

from the coolant to the cab. The feed from the engine

and the return lines from the cab should be insulated

in order to reduce heat loss to the outside air.

Note: Group 2 fuels must have a  maximum wear

scar of 650 micrometers (HFRR to ISO 12156-1).

Group 2 fuels are considered acceptable for issues

of warranty. This group of fuels may reduce the life

of the engine, the engine’s maximum power, and the

engine’s fuel efficiency.

Insulating the Air  Inlet and Engine

Compartment

When Group 2 diesel fuels are used the following

components provide a means of minimizing problems

in cold weather:

When temperatures below −18 °C (−0  °F) will be

frequently encountered, an air cleaner  inlet that

is located in  the engine compartment may be

specified. An air cleaner that is located in the engine

compartment may also minimize the entry of snow

into the air cleaner. Also, heat that is rejected by the

engine helps to warm the intake air.

•  Glow plugs (if equipped)

•  Engine coolant heaters, which may be an OEM

option

•  Fuel heaters, which may be an OEM option

Additional heat can be retained around the engine by

insulating the engine compartment.

•  Fuel line insulation, which may be an OEM option

There are three major differences between Group

1 fuels and Group 2 fuels. Group 1 fuels have  the

following different characteristics to Group 2 fuels.

i02237463

Fuel and the Effect from Cold

Weather

•  A lower cloud point

•  A lower pour point

Note: Only use grades of fuel that are recommended

by Perkins. Refer to this Operation and Maintenance

Manual, “Fluid Recommendations”.

•  A higher rating of kJ (BTU) per unit volume of fuel

The cloud point is the temperature when a cloud of

wax crystals begins to form in the fuel. These crystals

can cause the fuel filters to plug. The pour point is

the temperature when diesel fuel will thicken. The

diesel fuel becomes more resistant to flow through

fuel pumps and through the fuel lines.

The following fuels can be  used in this series of

engine.

•  Group 1

•  Group 2

Be aware of  these values when diesel fuel  is

purchased. Consider the average  ambient air

temperature for the engine’s application. Engines

that are fueled in one climate may not operate well if

the engines are moved to another climate. Problems

can result due to changes in temperature.

•  Group 3

•  Special Fuels

Perkins prefer only Group 1 and Group 2 fuels for use

in this series of engines. Group 3 fuels include Low

Temperature Fuels and Aviation Kerosene Fuels.

Before troubleshooting for low power  or for poor

performance in the winter, check the type of fuel that

is being used.

Note: Group 3 fuels reduce the life of the engine. The

use of Group 3 fuels is not covered by the Perkins

warranty.

Low temperature fuels may be available for engine

operation at temperatures below 0 °C (32 °F). These

fuels limit the formation of  wax in the fuel at low

temperatures. Wax in the fuel may prevent the flow

of the fuel through the fuel filters.

Special fuels include Biofuel.

Group 1 fuels are the preferred Group of Fuels for

general use by Perkins. Group 1  fuels maximize

engine life and engine performance. Group 1 fuels

are usually less  available than Group 2 fuels.

Frequently, Group 1 fuels are not available in colder

climates during the winter.

For more information on cold weather operation, refer

to the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Cold

Weather Operation and Fuel Related Components in

Cold Weather”.

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38

SEBU8121

Operation Section

Cold Weather Operation

i01903588

Fuel Related Components in

Cold Weather

Fuel Tanks

Condensation can form in partially filled fuel tanks.

Top off the fuel tanks after you operate the engine.

Fuel tanks should contain some provision for draining

water and sediment from the bottom of the  tanks.

Some fuel tanks use supply pipes that allow water

and sediment to settle below  the end of the fuel

supply pipe.

Some fuel tanks use  supply lines that take fuel

directly from the bottom of the tank. If the engine is

equipped with this system, regular maintenance of

the fuel system filter is important.

Drain the water and sediment from any fuel storage

tank at the following intervals: weekly, oil changes,

and refueling of the fuel tank. This will help prevent

water and/or sediment from being pumped from the

fuel storage tank and into the engine fuel tank.

Fuel Filters

It is possible that a  primary fuel filter is installed

between the fuel tank and the engine fuel inlet. After

you change the fuel filter,  always prime the fuel

system in order to remove air bubbles from the fuel

system. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance

Manual in the  Maintenance Section for more

information on priming the fuel system.

The micron rating and the location of a primary fuel

filter is important in cold weather  operation. The

primary fuel filter and the fuel supply line are the most

common components that are affected by cold fuel.

Fuel Heaters

Note: The OEM may equip the application with fuel

heaters. If this is the case, disconnect an electric type

of fuel heater in warm weather in order to prevent

overheating of the fuel. If the type of fuel heater is a

heat exchanger, the OEM should have included a

bypass for warm weather. Ensure that the bypass is

operational during warm weather in order to prevent

overheating of the fuel.

For more information about fuel heaters (if equipped),

refer to the OEM information.

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SEBU8121

39

Maintenance Section

Refill Capacities

Maintenance Section

Refill Capacities

1104 Engine

Table 3

1104 Naturally Aspirated  Engine

Compartment or System

Liters

Quarts

Engine Only

10.4

11

i02249844

External cooling system capacity

Refill Capacities

(OEM recommendation)

(1)

Total Cooling System

(2)

(1)  The external cooling system  includes a radiator or  an

Lubrication System

expansion tank with the following components: heat exchanger,

aftercooler, and piping. Refer to the OEM specifications. Enter

the value for the external system capacity in this row.

The refill capacities  for the engine crankcase

(2)  The Total Cooling System includes the capacity for the engine

reflect the approximate capacity of the crankcase

or sump plus standard oil filters. Auxiliary  oil filter

systems will require additional oil. Refer to the OEM

specifications for the capacity of the auxiliary oil filter.

Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,

“Maintenance Section” for more  information on

Lubricant Specifications.

cooling system plus the  capacity for the external cooling

system. Enter the total in this row.

Table 4

1104 Turbocharged  Engine

Compartment or System

Engine Only

External cooling System capacity

Liters

Quarts

11.4

12

1104 Engine

(OEM recommendation)

Total Cooling System

(1)

Table 2

(2)

1104 Engine

(1)  The external cooling system  includes a radiator or  an

Compartment or System

Liters

Quarts

expansion tank with the following components: heat exchanger,

aftercooler, and piping. Refer to the OEM specifications. Enter

the value for the external cooling system capacity in this row.

(2)  The Total Cooling System includes the capacity for the engine

Standard Oil Sump for the Engine

6.5

7

Crankcase

(1)

cooling system plus the  capacity for the external cooling

system. Enter the total in this row.

(1)  These values are the approximate capacities for the crankcase

oil sump which include the standard factory installed oil filters

and a standard crankcase oil sump. Engines with auxiliary oil

filters will require additional oil. Refer to the OEM specifications

for the capacity of the auxiliary oil filter.

i02280119

Fluid Recommendations

Cooling System

To maintain the cooling system, the Total  Cooling

System capacity must be known. The approximate

capacity for the engine  cooling system is listed

below. External System capacities will vary among

applications. Refer to the OEM specifications for the

External System capacity. This capacity information

will be needed in order  to determine the amount

of coolant/antifreeze that is required for  the Total

Cooling System.

General Lubricant Information

Because of government regulations regarding the

certification of exhaust emissions from the engine,

the lubricant recommendations must be followed.

Engine Manufacturers Association (EMA)

Oils

The “Engine  Manufacturers Association

Recommended Guideline on Diesel Engine Oil” is

recognized by Perkins. For detailed  information

about this guideline, see the latest edition of EMA

publication, “EMA DHD -1”.

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40

SEBU8121

Maintenance Section

Refill Capacities

API Oils

Engine Oil

The Engine Oil Licensing and Certification System by

the American Petroleum Institute (API) is recognized

by Perkins. For detailed  information about this

system, see the latest edition of the “API publication

No. 1509”. Engine oils that bear the API symbol are

authorized by API.

Commercial Oils

The performance of commercial  diesel engine

oils is based  on American Petroleum Institute

(API) classifications. These API classifications are

developed in order to provide commercial lubricants

for a broad range of diesel engines that operate at

various conditions.

Only use commercial oils that meet  the following

classifications:

•  EMA DHD-1 multigrade oil (preferred oil)

•  API CH-4 multigrade oil (preferred oil)

•  ACEAE3

In order to make the correct choice of a commercial

oil, refer to the following explanations:

g00546535

Illustration 18

Typical API symbol

EMA DHD-1  – The  Engine Manufacturers

Association (EMA) has  developed lubricant

recommendations as an alternative to the  API oil

classification system. DHD-1 is a Recommended

Guideline that defines a level of oil performance for

these types of diesel engines: high speed, four stroke

cycle, heavy-duty, and light duty. DHD-1 oils may

be used in Perkins engines when the following oils

are recommended: API CH-4, API CG-4, and API

CF-4. DHD-1 oils are intended to provide superior

performance in comparison to API CG-4 and  API

CF-4.

Diesel engine oils CC,  CD, CD-2, and CE have

not been API authorized  classifications since 1

January 1996. Table 5 summarizes the status of the

classifications.

Table 5

API Classifications

Current

CF-4, CG-4, CH-4

CF

Obsolete

CE

DHD-1 oils will meet the needs of high performance

Perkins diesel engines that are operating in many

applications. The tests and the test limits that  are

used to define DHD-1 are similar  to the new API

CH-4 classification. Therefore, these oils will also

meet the requirements for diesel engines that require

low emissions. DHD-1 oils are designed to control the

harmful effects of soot with improved wear resistance

and improved resistance to plugging of the oil filter.

These oils will also provide superior piston deposit

control for engines with either two-piece steel pistons

or aluminum pistons.

CC, CD

CF-2

(1)

CD-2

(1)

(1)  The classifications CD-2 and American Petroleum Institute

CF-2 are for two-cycle diesel engines. Perkins does not  sell

engines that utilize CD-2 and API CF-2 oils.

Terminology

Certain abbreviations follow the nomenclature of

“SAE J754”. Some classifications follow “SAE J183”

abbreviations, and some classifications follow the

“EMA Recommended Guideline on Diesel Engine

Oil”. In addition to Perkins definitions, there are other

definitions that will be of assistance in purchasing

lubricants. Recommended oil viscosities can be found

in this publication, “Fluid Recommendations/Engine

Oil” topic (Maintenance Section).

All DHD-1 oils must complete a  full test program

with the base stock and with the viscosity grade of

the finished commercial oil. The use of “API  Base

Oil Interchange Guidelines” are not appropriate for

DHD-1 oils. This feature reduces the  variation in

performance that can occur when base stocks are

changed in commercial oil formulations.

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SEBU8121

41

Maintenance Section

Refill Capacities

DHD-1 oils are recommended for use in extended oil

change interval programs that optimize the life of the

oil. These oil change interval programs are based

on oil analysis. DHD-1 oils are  recommended for

conditions that demand a premium oil. Your Perkins

dealer or your Perkins distributor has the specific

guidelines for optimizing oil change intervals.

NOTICE

Failure to follow these oil recommendations can cause

shortened engine service  life due to deposits  and/or

excessive wear.

Total Base Number (TBN) and Fuel Sulfur

Levels for Direct Injection (DI)  Diesel

Engines

API CH-4 – API CH-4 oils were developed in order to

meet the requirements of the new high performance

diesel engines. Also,  the oil was designed to

meet the requirements of the low emissions diesel

engines. API CH-4 oils are also acceptable for use

in older diesel engines and in diesel  engines that

use high sulfur diesel fuel. API  CH-4 oils may be

used in Perkins engines that use API CG-4 and API

CF-4 oils. API CH-4 oils will generally exceed  the

performance of API CG-4 oils in the following criteria:

deposits on pistons, control of oil consumption, wear

of piston rings, valve train wear, viscosity  control,

and corrosion.

The Total Base Number (TBN) for an oil depends on

the fuel sulfur level. For direct injection engines that

use distillate fuel, the minimum TBN of the new oil

must be 10 times the fuel sulfur level. The TBN  is

defined by “ASTM D2896”. The minimum TBN of the

oil is 5 regardless of fuel sulfur level. Illustration 19

demonstrates the TBN.

Three new engine tests were developed for the API

CH-4 oil. The first test specifically evaluates deposits

on pistons for engines with the two-piece steel piston.

This test (piston deposit) also measures the control

of oil consumption. A  second test is conducted

with moderate oil soot. The second test measures

the following criteria: wear of piston rings, wear of

cylinder liners, and resistance to corrosion. A third

new test measures the following characteristics with

high levels of soot in the oil: wear of the valve train,

resistance of the oil in  plugging the oil filter, and

control of sludge.

g00799818

Illustration 19

(Y) TBN by “ASTM D2896”

In addition to the new  tests, API CH-4 oils have

tougher limits for viscosity control in applications that

generate high soot. The oils  also have improved

oxidation resistance. API CH-4 oils must pass an

additional test (piston deposit) for engines that use

aluminum pistons (single piece). Oil performance is

also established for engines that operate in areas

with high sulfur diesel fuel.

(X) Percentage of fuel sulfur by weight

(1) TBN of new  oil

(2) Change the oil when the  TBN deteriorates to 50 percent of

the original TBN.

Use the following guidelines for fuel sulfur levels that

exceed 1.5 percent:

•   Choose an oil with the highest TBN that meets one

of these classifications: EMA DHD-1 and API CH-4.

All of these improvements  allow the API CH-4

oil to achieve optimum oil  change intervals. API

CH-4 oils are recommended for use in extended oil

change intervals. API CH-4 oils are recommended

for conditions that demand  a premium oil. Your

Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor has specific

guidelines for optimizing oil change intervals.

•  Reduce the oil change  interval. Base the oil

change interval on the oil analysis. Ensure that the

oil analysis includes the condition of the oil and

a wear metal analysis.

Excessive piston deposits can be produced by an oil

with a high TBN. These deposits can lead to a loss

of control of the oil consumption and to the polishing

of the cylinder bore.

Some commercial  oils that meet  the API

classifications may require reduced  oil change

intervals. To determine the oil change interval, closely

monitor the condition of the oil and perform a wear

metal analysis.

NOTICE

Operating Direct Injection (DI) diesel engines with fuel

sulphur levels over 0.5 percent will require shortened

oil change intervals in order to help maintain adequate

wear protection.

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42

SEBU8121

Maintenance Section

Refill Capacities

Table 6

Some synthetic base  oils have performance

characteristics that enhance the service life of the

oil. Perkins does not recommend  the automatic

extending of the oil change intervals for any type of

oil.

Percentage of Sulfur in

the fuel

Oil change interval

Lower than 0.5

0.5 to 1.0

Normal

0.75 of normal

0.50 of normal

Re-refined base stock oil

Greater than 1.0

Re-refined base stock oil are acceptable for use in

Perkins engines if these oils meet the performance

requirements that are specified by Perkins.Re-refined

base stock oil can be used exclusively in finished oil

or in a combination with new base stock oil . The US

military specifications and the specifications of other

heavy equipment manufacturers also allow the use of

re-refined base stock oil that meet the same criteria.

Lubricant Viscosity Recommendations

for Direct Injection (DI) Diesel Engines

The correct SAE viscosity grade of oil is determined

by the minimum  ambient temperature during

cold engine start-up, and the  maximum ambient

temperature during engine operation.

The process that is used to make re-refined base

stock oil should adequately remove all wear metals

that are in the used  oil and all the additives that

are in the used  oil. The process that is used to

make re-refined base stock oil generally involves the

process of vacuum distillation and hydrotreating the

used oil. Filtering is adequate for the production of

high quality, re-refined base stock oil.

Refer to Table 7 (minimum temperature) in order to

determine the required oil viscosity for starting a cold

engine.

Refer to Table 7 (maximum temperature) in order to

select the oil viscosity for engine operation  at the

highest ambient temperature that is anticipated.

Generally, use the highest  oil viscosity that is

available to meet the requirement for the temperature

at start-up.

Lubricants for Cold Weather

When an engine is started and an engine is operated

in ambient temperatures below −20 °C (−4 °F), use

multigrade oils that are capable  of flowing in low

temperatures.

Table 7

Engine Oil  Viscosity

EMA LRG-1

API CH-4

Ambient Temperature

These oils have lubricant viscosity grades of SAE

0W or SAE 5W.

Minimum

Maximum

Viscosity Grade

SAE 0W20

SAE 0W30

SAE 0W40

SAE 5W30

SAE 5W40

SAE 10W30

SAE 15W40

−40 °C (−40 °F)

−40 °C (−40 °F)

−40 °C (−40 °F)

−30 °C (−22 °F)

−30 °C (−22 °F)

−20 °C (−4 °F)

−10 °C (14 °F)

10 °C (50 °F)

30 °C (86 °F)

40 °C (104 °F)

30 °C (86 °F)

40 °C (104 °F)

40 °C (104 °F)

50 °C (122 °F)

When an engine is started and operated in ambient

temperatures below   30 °C (  22 °F), use a synthetic

base stock multigrade oil with an 0W viscosity grade

or with a 5W viscosity grade. Use an oil with a pour

point that is lower than −50 °C (−58 °F).

The number of acceptable lubricants is  limited in

cold weather conditions. Perkins recommends the

following lubricants for use in cold weather conditions:

First Choice  – Use oil  with an EMA DHD-1

Recommended Guideline. Use a CH-4 oil that has

an API license. The oil should be either SAE 0W20,

SAE 0W30, SAE 0W40, SAE 5W30, or SAE 5W40

lubricant viscosity grade.

Synthetic Base Stock Oil

Synthetic base oils  are acceptable for use in

these engines if these oils meet the  performance

requirements that are specified for the engine.

Second Choice  – Use an oil that  has a CH-4

additive package. Although the oil  has not been

tested for the requirements of the API license, the oil

must be either SAE 0W20, SAE 0W30, SAE 0W40,

SAE 5W30, or SAE 5W40.

Synthetic base oils generally perform better  than

conventional oils in the following two areas:

•  Synthetic base oils have improved  flow at low

temperatures especially in arctic conditions.

•  Synthetic base oils have  improved oxidation

stability especially at high operating temperatures.

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SEBU8121

43

Maintenance Section

Refill Capacities

•  The Wear Rate Analysis monitors the wear of the

engine’s metals. The amount of wear metal and

type of wear metal that is in the oil is analyzed. The

increase in the rate of engine wear metal  in the

oil is as important as the quantity of engine wear

metal in the oil.

NOTICE

Shortened engine  service life  could result if  second

choice oils are used.

Aftermarket Oil Additives

•  Tests are  conducted in order  to detect

Perkins does not recommend the use of aftermarket

additives in oil. It is not necessary to use aftermarket

additives in order to achieve the engine’s maximum

service life or rated performance. Fully formulated,

finished oils consist of base oils and of commercial

additive packages. These additive packages are

blended into the base oils at precise percentages in

order to help provide finished oils with performance

characteristics that meet industry standards.

contamination of the oil by water, glycol or fuel.

•  The Oil Condition Analysis determines the loss of

the oil’s lubricating properties. An infrared analysis

is used to compare the properties of new oil to the

properties of the used oil sample. This analysis

allows technicians to determine the amount  of

deterioration of the oil during use. This analysis

also allows technicians to verify the performance

of the oil according to the specification during the

entire oil change interval.

There are no industry standard tests that evaluate

the performance or the compatibility of aftermarket

additives in finished oil. Aftermarket additives may

not be compatible with the  finished oil’s additive

package, which could lower the performance of the

finished oil. The aftermarket additive could  fail to

mix with the finished oil. This could produce sludge

in the crankcase. Perkins discourages the  use of

aftermarket additives in finished oils.

Fuel Specifications

Fuel Recommendations

To get the correct power  and performance from

the engine, use a fuel  of the correct quality. The

recommended fuel specification for Perkins engines

is shown below:

To achieve the best performance  from a Perkins

engine, conform to the following guidelines:

•  Cetane number___________________________45 minimum

•  Viscosity___________2,0 to 4.5 cSt at 40 °C (104 °F)

•  Density________________________0.835 to 0.855 Kg/liter

•  Sulfur_______________________0.2% of mass, maximum

•  Distillation___________________85% at 350 °C (662 °F)

•  Select the correct oil, or a commercial oil that meets

the “EMA Recommended Guideline on  Diesel

Engine Oil” or the recommended API classification.

•  See the appropriate “Lubricant Viscosities” table in

order to find the correct oil viscosity grade for your

engine.

•  At the specified interval, service the engine. Use

new oil and install a , new oil filter.

•  Lubricity

______________________________

460 micrometers

maximum wear scar on “ISO 12156 - 1”

Cetane number

•  Perform maintenance at the intervals  that are

specified in the Operation  and Maintenance

Manual, “Maintenance Interval Schedule”.

This indicates the properties of ignition of the fuel.

Fuel with a low cetane  number can be the root

cause of problems during cold start. This will affect

combustion.

S·O·S Oil analysis

Some engines may be equipped with an oil sampling

valve. If S·O·S oil analysis is required the oil sampling

valve is used to obtain samples of the engine oil. The

S·O·S oil analysis will complement the preventive

maintenance program.

Viscosity

This is the  resistance to flow of a  fluid. If this

resistance is outside the limits, the engine and the

engine starting performance in particular can  be

affected.

The S·O·S oil analysis is a diagnostic tool that is used

to determine oil performance and component wear

rates. Contamination can be identified and measured

through the use of the S·O·S oil analysis. The S·O·S

oil analysis includes the following tests:

Sulfur

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44

SEBU8121

Maintenance Section

Refill Capacities

High sulfur content of the fuel is not normally found

in Europe, North America or Australasia. This can

cause engine wear. When only  high sulfur fuels

are available, it will be necessary that high alkaline

lubricating oil is used  in the engine or that  the

lubricating oil change interval is reduced.

“ASTM D975 - 91 Class 1D”

“JP7, Mil T38219”

“NATO F63”

NOTICE

Distillation

These fuels  should have  a wear  scar  value of  650

micrometers maximum *HFRR to ISO 12156 - 1.*

This is an  indication of the mixture of different

hydrocarbons in the fuel. A high ratio of light weight

hydrocarbons can affect the  characteristics of

combustion.

Group 3 (aviation kerosene fuels): Specification

These fuels need additives to achieve lubricity of 650

micrometers wear scar and the reliability of the fuel

injection pump will be reduced. The fuel  injection

pump is not covered by a warranty, even when the

additives are included.

Lubricity

This is the capability of the fuel to prevent pump wear.

Diesel engines have the ability to burn a wide variety

of fuels. These fuels are divided into four  general

groups:

“JP5 MIL T5624 (Avcat FSII, NATO F44”

“JP8 T83133 (Avtur FSII, NATO F34”

“Jet A”

•  Group 1 (preferred fuels)

•  Group 2 (permissible fuels)

•  Group 3 (aviation kerosene fuels)

•  Other fuels

“Jet A1, NATO F35, XF63”

Low temperature fuels

Special fuels for use in cold weather may be available

for engine operation at temperatures below  0 °C

(32 °F). These fuels limit the formation of wax in the

fuel oil at low temperatures. If wax forms in the fuel

oil, this could stop the flow of fuel oil through the filter.

Group 1 (preferred fuels): Specification

“DERV to EN590”

Note: Only use Arctic fuels when the temperature is

below 0 °C (32 °F). Do not use Arctic fuels when the

ambient temperature is above 0 °C (32 °F). To ensure

that the time period between cranking the engine and

first fire is kept to a minimum, only  use fuel of the

correct viscosity and at the correct temperature.

Note: These fuels that lack lubricity may cause the

following problems:

•  Low engine power

•  Difficult starting in  hot conditions or in cold

conditions

Gas oil to “BS2869 Class A2”

•  White smoke

“ASTM D975 - 91 Class 2D” This can only be used if

the fuel has the correct specification of lubricity.

•  Deterioration of emissions and misfire at certain

operating conditions

“JIS K2204 (1992) Grades 1,2,3 and Special Grade

3” This can only be used if the fuel has the correct

specification of lubricity.

Biofuel: Specification

Biofuel: A 5% mix of RME to EN14214 in conventional

fuel is permitted.

Note: If low sulfur or low sulfur aromatic fuels  are

used, then fuel additives can be used to  increase

lubricity.

NOTICE

Group 2 (permissible fuels): Specification

Water emulsion fuels: These fuels are not permitted

These fuel specifications are considered acceptable

for issues of warranty. However,these  fuels may

reduce the life of the engine, the engine’s maximum

power and the engine’s fuel efficiency.

Refer to the following fuel  specifications for

North America.

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SEBU8121

45

Maintenance Section

Refill Capacities

The preferred fuels provide maximum engine service

life and performance. The preferred fuels are distillate

fuels. These fuels are commonly called diesel fuel

or gas oil.

(Table 8, contd)

Copper Strip

Corrosion

No. 3 maximum

“D130”

“D86”

10% at 282  °C

(540 °F)

The permissible fuels are crude oils or blended fuels.

Use of these fuels can result in higher maintenance

costs and in reduced engine service life.

maximum

Distillation

90% at 360  °C

(680 °F)

Diesel fuels that meet the specifications  in Table

8 will help to provide maximum engine service life

and performance. In North America, diesel fuel that

is identified as No. 2-D in “ASTM D975” generally

meets the specifications. Table 8 is for diesel fuels

that are distilled from crude oil.  Diesel fuels from

other sources could exhibit detrimental properties

that are not defined or controlled by this specification.

maximum

Flash Point

API Gravity

legal limit

“D93”

30 minimum

45 maximum

“D287”

6 °C  (10 °F)

minimum

Pour Point

“D97”

below ambient

temperature

Table 8

Perkins Specifications for Distillate Diesel Fuel

0.2% maximum

“D3605”

or

Sulfur

(1)

Specifications

Requirements

ASTM Test

“D1552”

Aromatics

35% maximum

“D1319”

2.0 cSt minimum

and 4.5  cSt

Kinematic

Viscosity

0.02% maximum

(weight)

“D445”

Ash

“D482”

“D524”

maximum at

(2)

40 °C (104 °F)

Carbon Residue

on 10% Bottoms

0.35% maximum

(weight)

Water  and

Sediment

0.1% maximum

“D1796”

“D1744”

“D473”

40 minimum (DI

engines)

Cetane Number

“D613”

Water

0.1% maximum

0.05% maximum

(weight)

Sediment

The  cloud

point must not

exceed  the

lowest expected

ambient

Gum and Resins    10  mg per 100

Cloud Point

-

“D381”

(3)

mL maximum

0.38  mm

temperature.

(0.015 inch)

maximum at

25 °C (77 °F)

Lubricity

(4)

“D6079”

(continued)

(1)  Perkins fuel systems and engine components can operate

on high sulfur  fuels. Fuel sulfur levels  affect exhaust

emissions. High sulfur fuels  also increase the potential

for corrosion of internal  components. Fuel sulfur levels

above 0.5 percent may significantly shorten  the oil change

interval. For additional information, see this publication, “Fluid

Recommendations/Engine Oil” topic (Maintenance Section).

(2)  The values of the fuel viscosity are  the values as the fuel

is delivered to the fuel injection  pumps. If a fuel with a low

viscosity is used, cooling  of the fuel may  be required to

maintain a 1.4 cSt viscosity at the fuel injection  pump. Fuels

with a high viscosity might require fuel heaters in order to bring

down the viscosity to a 20 cSt viscosity.

(3)  Follow the test conditions and procedures for gasoline (motor).

(4)  The lubricity of a fuel is a  concern with low sulfur fuel. To

determine the lubricity of the fuel, use either the “ASTM D6078

Scuffing Load Wear Test (SBOCLE)” or the “ASTM D6079 High

Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR)” test. If the lubricity of a

fuel does not meet the minimum requirements,  consult your

fuel supplier. Do not treat the fuel without consulting the  fuel

supplier. Some additives are not compatible. These additives

can cause problems in the fuel system.

This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


 

46

SEBU8121

Maintenance Section

Refill Capacities

Cooling System Specifications

NOTICE

Operating with fuels that do not meet the Perkins rec-

ommendations can cause the following effects: Start-

ing difficulty, poor combustion, deposits in the fuel in-

jectors, reduced  service life  of the  fuel system,  de-

posits in the  combustion chamber, and reduced ser-

vice life of the engine.

General Coolant Information

NOTICE

Never add coolant  to an overheated  engine. Engine

damage could result. Allow the engine to cool first.

NOTICE

NOTICE

If the engine is to be stored in, or shipped  to an area

with below freezing temperatures, the cooling system

must be either protected to the lowest outside temper-

ature or drained completely to prevent damage.

Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO), Residual fuel, or Blended fuel

must NOT be used in Perkins diesel engines. Severe

component wear and component failures will result if

HFO type fuels are used in engines that are configured

to use distillate fuel.

NOTICE

Frequently check the specific gravity of the coolant for

proper freeze protection or for anti-boil protection.

In extreme cold ambient conditions, you may use the

distillate fuels that are specified in Table 9. However,

the fuel that is selected must meet the requirements

that are specified in Table 8. These fuels are intended

to be used in operating temperatures that are down

to −54 °C (−65 °F).

Clean the cooling system for the following reasons:

•  Contamination of the cooling system

•  Overheating of the engine

Table 9

Distillate Fuels

(1)

•  Foaming of the coolant

Specification

“MIL-T-5624R”

“ASTM D1655”

“MIL-T-83133D”

Grade

JP-5

NOTICE

Jet-A-1

JP-8

Never operate  an engine without  water temperature

regulators in the  cooling system. Water  temperature

regulators help to maintain  the engine coolant at the

proper operating temperature.  Cooling system prob-

lems can develop  without water temperature regula-

tors.

(1)  The fuels that are listed  in this Table may not  meet the

requirements that are specified in the “Perkins Specifications

for Distillate Diesel Fuel” Table. Consult the supplier for  the

recommended additives in order to maintain  the correct fuel

lubricity.

Many engine failures are  related to the cooling

system. The following problems are related to cooling

system failures: Overheating, leakage of the water

pump, and plugged radiators or heat exchangers.

These fuels are lighter than the No. 2 grades of fuel.

The cetane number of the fuels in Table 9 must be

at least 40. If the viscosity is below 1.4 cSt at 38 °C

(100 °F), use the fuel only in  temperatures below

0 °C (32 °F). Do not use any fuels with a viscosity

of less than 1.2 cSt at 38 °C (100 °F). Fuel cooling

may be required in order to maintain the minimum

viscosity of 1.4 cSt at the fuel injection pump.

These failures can be avoided with correct cooling

system maintenance. Cooling system maintenance is

as important as maintenance of the fuel system and

the lubrication system. Quality of the coolant is as

important as the quality of the fuel and the lubricating

oil.

There are many other diesel fuel specifications that

are published by governments and by technological

societies. Usually, those  specifications do not

review all the requirements  that are addressed

in this specification. To  ensure optimum engine

performance, a complete fuel analysis should be

obtained before engine operation. The fuel analysis

should include all of the properties that are listed in

Table 8.

Coolant is normally composed of three elements:

Water, additives, and glycol.

Water

Water is used in  the cooling system in order to

transfer heat.

Distilled water  or deionized  water is

recommended for use in engine cooling systems.

This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


 

SEBU8121

47

Maintenance Section

Refill Capacities

DO NOT use the following types of water in cooling

systems: Hard water, softened water that has been

conditioned with salt, and sea water.

•  Plugging of radiators, coolers, and small passages

Glycol

If distilled water or deionized water is not available,

use water with the properties that are listed in Table

10.

Glycol in the coolant helps  to provide protection

against the following conditions:

•  Boiling

Table 10

Perkins Minimum Acceptable Water Requirements

•  Freezing

Property

Maximum Limit

40 mg/L

•  Cavitation of the water pump

Chloride (Cl)

For optimum performance, Perkins recommends a

1:1 mixture of a water/glycol solution.

Sulfate (SO4)

Total Hardness

Total Solids

Acidity

100 mg/L

170 mg/L

Note: Use a mixture that  will provide protection

340 mg/L

against the lowest ambient temperature.

pH of  5.5 to 9.0

Note: 100 percent pure  glycol will freeze at  a

temperature of −23 °C (−9 °F).

For a water analysis, consult one of  the following

sources:

Most conventional coolant/antifreezes use ethylene

glycol. Propylene glycol may also be used. In a 1:1

mixture with water, ethylene and propylene glycol

provide similar protection against  freezing and

boiling. See Tables 11 and 12.

•  Local water utility company

•  Agricultural agent

•  Independent laboratory

Table 11

Ethylene Glycol

Additives

Freeze

Boil

Concentration

Additives help to protect  the metal surfaces of

the cooling system. A lack of coolant  additives or

insufficient amounts of additives enable the following

conditions to occur:

Protection

Protection

50 Percent

60 Percent

−36 °C (−33 °F)   106 °C (223 °F)

−51 °C ( 60 °F)    111 °C (232 °F)

•  Corrosion

NOTICE

Do not use propylene glycol in concentrations that ex-

ceed 50 percent glycol because of propylene glycol’s

reduced heat transfer capability.  Use ethylene glycol

in conditions that require additional protection against

boiling or freezing.

•  Formation of mineral deposits

•  Rust

•  Scale

•  Foaming of the coolant

Many additives are depleted during engine operation.

These additives must be replaced periodically.

Additives must be added at the correct concentration.

Overconcentration of additives  can cause the

inhibitors to drop out-of-solution. The deposits can

enable the following problems to occur:

•  Formation of gel compounds

•  Reduction of heat transfer

•  Leakage of the water pump seal

This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale

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