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详细描述:

Perkins 1300 Series

Models WF to WJ

USER’S HANDBOOK

Six cylinder turbocharged diesel engines for industrial

and agricultural applications

Publication TPD 1315E, Issue 6.

© Proprietary information of Perkins Engines Company Limited, all rights reserved.

The information is correct at the time of print.

Published in February 1997 by Technical Publications,

Perkins Engines Company Limited, Peterborough PE1 5NA England

i

This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


 

This publication is written in

Perkins Approved Clear English

This publication is divided into six chapters:

1    General information

2    Engine views

3    Operation instructions

4    Preventive maintenance

5    Engine fluids

6    Fault diagnosis

The following pages contain a detailed table of contents

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Contents

1 General information

Introduction  . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...1

Safety precautions  .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...2

How to care for your engine  ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...3

Engine preservation  ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...4

Parts and Service  ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...6

POWERPART recommended consumable products .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...6

Service literature . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...7

Training ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...7

Engine identification  ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...8

Engine data . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...9

2 Engine views

Introduction  . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .11

Location of engine parts .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .11

3 Operation instructions

How to start the engine ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .13

How to start a warm engine   ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .14

How to start a cold engine  .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .15

How to start an engine with an ether start system .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .16

How to stop the engine  ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .17

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Adjustment of engine speed range .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...  17

Engine operation at idle speed  ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...  17

Running-in  ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...  18

Altitude . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...  18

4 Preventive maintenance

Preventive maintenance periods  . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...  19

Schedules  ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...  20

How to drain the cooling system .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...  21

How to fill the cooling system  .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...  22

How to renew the canister of the coolant filter / inhibitor . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...  23

How to check the drive belt  . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...  24

How to renew the drive belt . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...  24

Fuel pre-filter  ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...  25

How to renew the fuel strainer and the canister of the fuel filter .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...  25

Atomiser fault ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...  26

How to renew an atomiser ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...  27

How to eliminate air from the fuel system  ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...  28

How to renew the lubricating oil ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...  29

How to renew the canister of the lubricating oil filter  ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 30

Air filter   ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...  31

Restriction indicator . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...  31

How to set the valve tip clearances . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...  32

5 Engine fluids

Fuel specification . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...  33

Lubricating oil specification .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...  34

Coolant specification  ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...  35

6 Fault diagnosis

Problems and possible causes  ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...  37

List of possible causes   ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...  38

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1300 Series Models WF to WJ

1

General information

1

Introduction

The New Generation 1300 Series is an improved family of 1300 Series engines for industrial and agricultural

applications from Perkins Engines Limited, a world leader in the design and manufacture of high performance

diesel engines.

Perkins approved assembly and quality standards, together with the latest technology, have been applied to

the manufacture of your engine to give you reliable and economic power.

To ensure that you use the relevant information for your specific engine type, refer to "Engine identification"

on page 8.

Danger is indicated in the text by two methods:

Warning! This indicates that there is a possible danger to the person.

Caution: This indicates that there is a possible danger to the engine.

Note: Is used where the information is important, but there is not a danger.

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Safety precautions

These safety precautions are important. You must refer also to the local regulations in the country of use.

Some items only apply to specific applications.

z   Only use these engines in the type of application for which they have been designed.

z   Do not change the specification of the engine.

z   Do not smoke when you put fuel in the tank.

z   Clean away fuel which has been spilt. Material which has been contaminated by fuel must be moved to a

safe place.

z   Do not put fuel in the tank while the engine runs (unless it is absolutely necessary).

z   Do not clean, add lubricating oil, or adjust the engine while it runs (unless you have had the correct training;

even then extreme caution must be used to prevent injury).

z   Do not make adjustments that you do not understand.

z   Ensure that the engine does not run in a location where it can cause a concentration of toxic emissions.

z   Other persons must be kept at a safe distance while the engine or auxiliary equipment is in operation.

z   Do not permit loose clothing or long hair near moving parts.

z   Keep away from moving parts during engine operation.

Warning! Some moving parts cannot be seen clearly while the engine runs.

z   Do not operate the engine if a safety guard has been removed.

z   Do not remove the filler cap any component of the cooling system while the engine is hot and while the

coolant is under pressure, because dangerous hot coolant can be discharged.

z   Do not use salt water or any other coolant which can cause corrosion in the closed coolant circuit.

z   Do not allow sparks or fire near the batteries (especially when the batteries are on charge) because the

gases from the electrolyte are highly flammable. The battery fluid is dangerous to the skin and especially

to the eyes.

z   Disconnect the battery terminals before a repair is made to the electrical system.

z   Only one person must control the engine.

z   Ensure that the engine is operated only from the control panel or from the operator's position.

z   If your skin comes into contact with high-pressure fuel, obtain medical assistance immediately.

z   Diesel fuel and lubricating oil (especially used lubricating oil) can damage the skin of certain persons.

Protect your hands with gloves or a special solution to protect the skin.

z   Do not wear clothing which is contaminated by lubricating oil. Do not put material which is contaminated

with oil into the pockets of clothing.

z   Discard used lubricating oil in accordance with local regulations to prevent contamination.

z   Ensure that the control lever of the transmission drive is in the "out-of-drive" position before the engine is

started.

z   Use extreme care if emergency repairs must be made in adverse conditions.

z   The combustible material of some components of the engine (for example certain seals) can become

extremely dangerous if it is burned. Never allow this burnt material to come into contact with the skin or with

the eyes.

z   Always use a safety cage to protect the operator when a component is to be pressure tested in a container

of water. Fit safety wires to secure the plugs which seal the hose connections of a component which is to

be pressure tested.

z   Do not allow compressed air to contact your skin. If compressed air enters your skin, obtain medical help

immediately.

z   Turbochargers operate at high speed and at high temperatures. Keep fingers, tools and other objects away

from the inlet and outlet ports of the turbocharger and avoid contact with hot surfaces.

z   Fit only genuine Perkins parts.

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1300 Series Models WF to WJ

How to care for your engine

This handbook has been written to assist you to maintain and operate your engine correctly.

To obtain the best performance and the longest life from your engine, you must ensure that the maintenance

operations are done at the intervals indicated in Chapter 4, Preventive maintenance. If the engine works in a

very dusty environment or other adverse conditions, certain maintenance intervals will have to be reduced.

Renew the filter canisters and lubricating oil regularly in order to ensure that the inside of your engine remains

clean.

Ensure that all adjustments and repairs are done by personnel who have had the correct training. Perkins

distributors have this type of personnel available. You can also obtain parts and service from your Perkins

distributor.

The terms "left side" and "right side" apply when the engine is seen from the flywheel end.

Warning! Read the "Safety precautions" on page 2 and remember them. They are given for your protection

and must be applied at all times.

User’s Handbook, TPD 1315E, issue 6

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Engine preservation

Introduction

The recommendations indicated below are designed to prevent damage to the engine when it is withdrawn

from service for a prolonged period. Use these procedures after the engine is withdrawn from service. The

instructions for the use of POWERPART products are given on the outside of each container.

Procedure

1  Completely clean the outside of the engine.

2  When a preservative fuel is to be used, drain the fuel system and fill it with the preservative fuel.

POWERPART Lay-Up 1 can be added to the normal fuel to change it to a preservative fuel. If preservative fuel

is not used, the system can be completely filled with normal fuel but the fuel must be drained and discarded at

the end of the storage period together with the fuel filter canister.

3  Operate the engine until it is warm. Then correct leakages of fuel, lubricating oil or air. Stop the engine and

drain the lubricating oil from the sump.

4  Renew the canister of the lubricating oil filter.

5  Fill the sump to the full mark with new and clean lubricating oil and add POWERPART Lay-up 2 to the oil to

protect the engine against corrosion. If POWERPART Lay-Up 2 is not available, use a correct preservative

fluid instead of the lubricating oil. If a preservative fluid is used, this must be drained and the lubricating oil

sump must be filled to the correct level with normal lubricating oil at the end of the storage period.

6  Drain the coolant circuit, see "How to drain the cooling system" on page 21. In order to protect the cooling

system against corrosion, fill it with an approved antifreeze mixture because this gives protection against

corrosion, see "Coolant specification" on page 35.

Caution: If protection against frost is not necessary and a corrosion inhibitor is to be used, it is recommended

that you consult the Technical Service Department, Perkins Sales and Service Limited, Peterborough.

7  Operate the engine for a short period in order to circulate the lubricating oil and the coolant in the engine.

8  Disconnect the battery. Then put the battery into safe storage in a fully charged condition. Before the battery

is put into storage, protect its terminals against corrosion. POWERPART Lay-Up 3 can be used on the

terminals.

9  Clean the engine breather pipe and seal the end of the pipe.

10  Remove the atomisers and spray POWERPART Lay-Up 2 for one to two seconds into each cylinder bore

with the piston at bottom dead centre.

Slowly turn the crankshaft one revolution and then fit the atomisers, complete with new seat washers.

11  Disconnect the air inlet pipe at the rocker cover. Release the cap screws and remove the rocker cover.

Spray POWERPART Lay-Up 2 around the rocker shaft assembly and into the induction ports in the cylinder

head, as indicated on the container label. Fit the rocker cover and connect the air inlet pipe.

Remove the air filter. Then, if necessary, remove the pipe(s) installed between the air filter and the

turbocharger. Seal the air inlet to the turbocharger with waterproof tape.

12  Remove the exhaust pipe. Spray POWERPART

Lay-Up 2 into the exhaust manifold or the turbocharger. It is recommended that the spray time for the

turbocharger is 50% longer than the spray time for the manifold, which is indicated on the container label. Seal

the manifold or the turbocharger with waterproof tape.

13  Seal the vent pipe of the fuel tank or the fuel filler cap with waterproof tape.

14  Remove the drive belts and put them into storage.

Continued

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15  In order to prevent corrosion, spray the engine with POWERPART Lay-Up 3. Do not spray the area inside

the alternator cooling fan.

Caution: After a period in storage, but before the engine is started, operate the starter motor with the engine

stop control in the "stop" position until oil pressure is indicated. Oil pressure can be indicated either by a gauge

or when a low pressure warning light is extinguished. If a solenoid stop control is used on the fuel injection

pump, it must be disconnected for this operation.

If the engine protection is done correctly according to the above recommendations, no corrosion damage will

normally occur. Perkins are not responsible for damage which may occur when an engine is in storage after a

period in service.

User’s Handbook, TPD 1315E, issue 6

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Parts and Service

If problems occur with your engine or with the components fitted onto it, your Perkins distributor can make the

necessary repairs and will ensure that only the correct parts are fitted and that the work is done correctly.

POWERPART recommended consumable products

Perkins have made available the products recommended below in order to assist in the correct operation,

service and maintenance of your engine and your machine. The instructions for the use of each product are

given on the outside of each container. These products are available from your Perkins distributor.

POWERPART Antifreeze

Protects the cooling system against frost and corrosion. Part number 1 litre 21825166 or 5 litres 21825167,

see "Coolant specification" on page 35.

POWERPART Easy Flush

Cleans the cooling system. Part number 2182501

POWERPART Jointing compound

Universal jointing compound which seals joints. Currently Hylomar. Part number 1861155 or 1861117.

POWERPART Silicone rubber sealant

Silicone rubber sealant which prevents leakage through gaps. Currently Hylosil. Part number 1861108.

POWERPART Lay-Up 1

A diesel fuel additive for protection against corrosion. Part number 1772204, see "Engine preservation" on

page 4.

POWERPART Lay-Up 2

Protects the inside of the engine and of other closed systems. Part number 1762811, see "Engine

preservation" on page 4.

POWERPART Lay-Up 3

Protects outside metal parts. Part number 1734115, see "Engine preservation" on page 4.

POWERPART Chisel

Allows easy removal of old gaskets and joints. Currently Loctite chisel. Part number 21825163.

POWERPART Repel

Dries damp equipment and gives protection against corrosion. Passes through dirt and corrosion to lubricate

and to assist removal of components. Currently Loctite repel. Part number 21825164.

POWERPART Threadlock

To retain small fasteners where easy removal is necessary. Currently Loctite 222e. Part number 21820222.

POWERPART Studlock

To permanently retain large fasteners and studs. Currently Loctite 270. Part number 21820270.

POWERPART Nutlock

To retain and seal threaded fasteners and cup plugs where easy removal is necessary. Currently Loctite 242e.

Part number 21820242.

Continued

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POWERPART Liquid gasket

To seal flat faces of components where no joint is used. Especially suitable for aluminium components.

Currently Loctite 518. Part number 21820518.

POWERPART Threadlock (hydraulic/pneumatic)

To retain and seal pipe connections with fine threads. Especially suitable for hydraulic and pneumatic systems.

Currently Loctite 542. Part number 21820542.

POWERPART Threadlock (pipe)

To retain and seal pipe connections with coarse threads. Pressure systems can be used immediately.

Currently Loctite 575. Part number 21820575.

POWERPART Retainer (oil tolerant)

To retain components which have a transition fit. Currently Loctite 603. Part number 21820603.

POWERPART Retainer (high strength)

To retain components which have an interference fit. Currently Loctite 638. Part number 21820638.

POWERPART Atomiser thread sealant

To seal the threads of the atomiser into the cylinder head. Currently Hylomar Advance Formulation.

POWERPART Compound

To seal the outer diameter of seals. Currently Loctite Forma Gasket No 2. Part number 1861147.

POWERPART Platelock

Medium strength anaerobic threadlock for tight fitted metal surfaces. Suitable for metal plated surfaces and

stainless steel. Currently Loctite 243. Part number 21826039.

POWERPART Gasket eliminator

Improves flange sealing when a gasket is not used. It provides a seal with temperature resistance that is

flexible in positions where vibration and pressure occur. Currently Loctite 515. Part number 21826040.

POWERPART Silicone adhesive

An RTV silicone adhesive for application where low pressure tests occur before the adhesive sets. Used for

sealing flange where oil resistance is needed and movement of the joint occurs. Currently Loctite 5900. Part

number 21826038.

Service literature

Workshop manuals, installation drawings and other service publications are available from your Perkins

distributor at a nominal cost.

Training

Local training for the correct operation, service and overhaul of engines is available at certain Perkins

distributors. If special training is necessary, your Perkins distributor can advise you how to obtain it at the

Perkins Customer Training Department, Peterborough, or other main centres.

User’s Handbook, TPD 1315E, issue 6

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1300 Series Models WF to WJ

Engine identification

The New Generation 1300 Series of engines consists of a range of six cylinder in-line engines which are

turbocharged / intercooled or turbocharged.

In this handbook, the different engine types are indicated by their code letters, which are the first two letters of

the engine number as indicated below:

Capacity

Code letters

Aspiration system

Litre

6,7

6,7

7,6

7,6

8,6

8,6

in3

408

408

466

466

531

531

WD

WE

WF

WG

WH

WJ

Turbocharged

Turbocharged / intercooled

Turbocharged

Turbocharged / intercooled

Turbocharged

Turbocharged / intercooled

The engine number is stamped on the left side of the cylinder block, (A1). An example of an engine number is

WJ1296N123456.

The components of the engine number are as follows:

WJ1296N123456

WJ

1296

N

Type code letters

Build list number

Built in the USA

123456

Engine serial number

If you need parts, service or information for your engine, you must give the complete engine number to your

Perkins distributor.

1

A

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Engine data

Number of cylinders

Cylinder arrangement

Cycle

6

In line

Four stroke

Induction system

Combustion system

Nominal bore

Turbocharged or Turbocharged/intercooled

Direct injection

- WD, WE, WF and WG

- WH and WJ

109,2 mm (4.301 in)

116,6 mm (4.590 in)

Stroke

- WD and WE

118,9 mm (4.681 in)

135,9 mm (5.350 in)

16.5:1

- WF, WG, WH and WJ

Compression ratio

Cubic capacity

- WD and WE

- WF and WG

- WH and WJ

6,68 litres (408.0 in3)

7,64 litres (466.4 in3)

8,71 litres (531.0 in3)

1, 5, 3, 6, 2, 4

Firing order

Valve tip clearances (cold)

- Inlet

- Exhaust

0,64 mm (0.025 in

0,64 mm (0.025 in)

Lubricating oil pressure (maximum engine speed and normal

345 kN/m  (50 lbf/in  ) 3,5 kgf/cm2

2

2

engine temperature)

Capacity of a typical lubricating oil sump  (1)

- Without filter canister

- With filter canister

Typical coolant capacity (engine only)

Direction of rotation

20,8 litres (36.6 UK pints) 22 US quarts

26,4 litres (46.5 UK pints) 28 US quarts

12,8 litres (22.5 UK pints) 13,5 US quarts

Clockwise from the front

(1) The capacity of the sump may vary according to the application. Fill to the "Full" mark on the dipstick. Do not exceed the "Full" mark.

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2

Engine views

2

Introduction

Perkins engines are built for specific applications and the views which follow do not necessarily match your

engine specification.

Location of engine parts

Front and left side view

1 Atomiser

7 Sump for the engine lubricating oil

8 Crankshaft damper

9 Drive belt

2 Lubricating oil filler and dipstick

3 Fuel priming pump

4 Fuel strainer

10 Fan

5 Canister for the fuel filter

6 Starter motor

11 Fuel injection pump

1

2

11

10

3

4

5

9

8

7

6

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Rear and right side view

12 Front lift bracket

19 Canister for the lubricating oil filter

13 Alternator

20 Flywheel housing

21 Flywheel

22 Turbocharger

14 Tensioner for the drive belt

15 Canister for the coolant filter / inhibitor

16 Coolant pump

23 Rear lift bracket

17 Coolant inlet connection

18 Lubricating oil cooler

24 Rocker cover and induction manifold

25 Air inlet connection

25

24

12

13

23

22

14

15

16

21

17

18

20

19

A

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3

Operation instructions

3

How to start the engine

Several factors affect engine start, for example:

z   The power of the batteries

z   The performance of the starter motor

z   The viscosity of the lubricating oil

z   The installation of a cold start system

The engine will start with the fuel injection pump in excess fuel at temperatures as low as -20 °C (-4 °F). In

conditions where the temperature is lower than this, an ether start system may be necessary.

Before the engine is started the operator should understand fully the reason for the controls and their use.

Before the engine is started:

z   Check that there is sufficient coolant and, if necessary, add the correct coolant. Refer to Chapter 4,

Preventive maintenance.

z   Check that there is sufficient lubricating oil in the sump and, if necessary, add lubricating oil. Refer to

Chapter 4, Preventive maintenance. Ensure that the lubricating oil is of the correct grade for the ambient

conditions.

z   Fill the fuel tank with fuel of the correct specification.

z   Check the air filter and its connections.

z   Ensure that all of the electrical connections are tight.

Notes:

z   Refer to Chapter 5, Engine fluids for the correct engine fluids.

z   The procedures to start the engine may vary according to the application. If possible, consult the User's

Handbook for the application.

Caution: If the engine has not run for several weeks, see Caution on page 5.

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How to start a warm engine

Ambient temperature more than 15 °C (60 °F)

1  Apply the hand brake. Ensure that the transmission is in the out-of-drive position. Ensure that the engine

speed control is in the minimum speed position.

2  If the engine is equipped with a manual stop control, ensure that it is in the "run" position.

3  Turn the start key to the "ON" position.

4  Continue to turn the start key to engage the starter motor. If the application has a start button, press and

hold the button.

5  Release the start key (or the button) as soon as the engine starts. The start key will return to the "ON"

position.

Caution: If the engine does not start within 30 seconds, release the start key and wait two to three minutes to

allow the starter motor to cool. If after three tries the engine does not start, turn the key to the "OFF" position

and locate and correct the problem. Always ensure that the engine and starter motor are stationary before the

starter motor is engaged again.

2

2

When the engine starts check that the lubricating oil pressure exceeds 69 kPa (10 lbs/in ) 0,70 kgf/cm   within

the first 10 seconds. Refer to "Engine data" on page 9 for the correct lubricating oil pressure. If a gauge is not

fitted, check that the warning light for low oil pressure is extinguished. If this does not occur, stop the engine

and find and correct the fault. Allow the engine to warm at approximately 1000 rev/min for three to five minutes

before load is applied.

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How to start a cold engine

Ambient temperatures from +15 °C (+60 °F) to -20 °C (-4 °F)

1  Apply the hand brake. Ensure that the transmission is in the out-of-drive position.

2  Ensure that the engine speed control is in the minimum speed position.

Engines equipped with a manual stop control: Ensure that the manual stop control is in the "run" position. Then

adjust the engine speed control to the maximum speed position.

3  Turn the start key to the "ON" position.

4  Continue to turn the start key to engage the starter motor. If the application has a start button, press and

hold the button. If the engine is equipped with an electrical stop control, move the engine speed control to the

maximum speed position after the starter motor is engaged.

5  Release the start key (or the button) as soon as the engine starts. The start key will return to the "ON"

position. Then release the engine speed control.

2

2

6  When the engine starts check that the lubricating oil pressure exceeds 69 kPa (10 lbs/in  ) 0,70 kgf/cm

within the first 10 seconds. Refer to "Engine data" on page 9 for the correct lubricating oil pressure. If a gauge

is not fitted, check that the warning light for low oil pressure is extinguished. If this does not occur, stop the

engine and find and correct the fault. Allow the engine to warm at approximately 1000 rev/min for three to five

minutes before load is applied.

Caution: If the engine does not start within 30 seconds, release the start key and wait two to three minutes to

allow the starter motor to cool. If after three tries the engine does not start, turn the key to the "OFF" position

and locate and correct the problem. Always ensure that the engine and starter motor are stationary before the

starter motor is engaged again.

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How to start an engine with an ether start system

Ambient temperature below -20 °C (-4 °F)

Warning! Ether is very flammable and is toxic. Apply the safety precautions on the container for the use and

storage of ether and for the disposal of empty containers.

1  Apply the hand brake. Ensure that the transmission is in the out-of-drive position. Ensure that the engine

speed control is in the minimum speed position. Check the ether container to ensure that a supply of ether is

available under pressure.

2  If the engine is equipped with a manual stop control, ensure that it is in the "run" position.

3  Ensure that the engine speed control is still in the idle position.

4  Turn the start key to the "ON" position.

5  Continue to turn the start key (or press the start button, if one is fitted) to engage the starter motor and at

the same time press the ether injection button. Allow one to two seconds for the ether injection system to fill

then release the injection button to release a measured amount of ether into the engine. While the engine is

still at cranking speed move the engine speed control to the maximum speed position.

Caution: Release of ether into the cylinders before the starter motor is engaged may cause damage to the

pistons and piston rings.

6  Release the start key (or the start button, if one is fitted) as soon as the engine starts. The start key will return

to the "ON" position. Then release the engine speed control.

Caution: =If the engine does not start within 30 seconds, release the start key and wait two to three minutes

to allow the starter motor to cool. If after three tries the engine does not start, turn the key to the "OFF" position

and locate and correct the problem. Always ensure that the engine and starter motor are stationary before the

starter motor is engaged again.

Note: In extremely cold conditions, it is permissible to inject further ether into the engine if the engine runs

roughly after the initial start.

Caution: Do not inject ether into a warm engine.

2

2

7  When the engine starts check that the lubricating oil pressure exceeds 69 kPa (10 lbs/in  ) 0,70 kgf/cm

within the first 25 seconds. Refer to "Engine data" on page 9 for the correct lubricating oil pressure. If a gauge

is not fitted, check that the warning light for low oil pressure is extinguished. If this does not occur, stop the

engine and find and correct the fault. Allow the engine to warm at approximately 1000 rev/min for three to five

minutes before load is applied.

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1300 Series Models WF to WJ

How to stop the engine

According to the equipment fitted, either turn the engine start key to the "OFF" position or operate the manual

stop control. If a manual stop control is used, ensure that the control returns to the "run" position after the

engine has stopped. Also ensure that the engine start key is turned to the "OFF" position. It is recommended

that the engine is operated at idle speed for three to five minutes before the engine is stopped. This will allow

the lubricating oil and the coolant to carry the heat away from large ferrous components.

Caution: It is recommended that a turbocharged engine is run at approximately 1000 rev/min at a reduced

load for 2-3 minutes before it is shut down. This will allow the turbocharger to cool.

Adjustment of engine speed range

The idle or maximum speed settings must not be changed by the engine operator because this can damage

the engine or the transmission. The warranty of the engine can be affected if the seals on the fuel injection

pump are broken during the warranty period by a person who is not approved by Perkins.

Engine operation at idle speed

Do not operate the engine for long periods at idle speed as this could have an adverse affect on the engine

performance or damage the engine.

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Running-in

A gradual running-in of a new engine is not necessary. Maximum load can be applied to a new engine as soon

as the engine is put into service.

z   The engine will benefit if the load is applied as soon as possible after the engine is put into service.

z   Before maximum load is applied to the engine, ensure that the coolant is at normal working temperature.

z   Prolonged operation at light loads during the early life of the engine can cause lubricating oil to enter the

exhaust system.

Cautions:

z   Do not operate the engine at high speeds without a load.

z   Do not overload the engine.

Altitude

The engine will run correctly up to an altitude of 3000 m (10,000 ft). If the engine is to run at an altitude above

3000 m (10,000 ft), changes must be made to the settings of the fuel injection pump. These changes must be

made by a Perkins distributor or by an approved distributor for the fuel injection pump.

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4

Preventive maintenance

4

Preventive maintenance periods

These preventive maintenance periods apply to average conditions of operation. Check the periods given by

the manufacturer of the equipment in which the engine is installed. Use the periods which are shortest. When

the operation of the engine must conform to the local regulations these periods and procedures may need to

be adapted to ensure correct operation of the engine.

It is good preventive maintenance to check for leakage and loose fasteners at each service.

These maintenance periods apply only to engines that are operated with fuel and lubricating oil which conform

to the specifications given in this handbook.

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Schedules

The schedules which follow must be applied at the interval (hours or months) which occur first.

A

B

C

D

Every day or every 8 hours

Every 450 hours or 6 months

Every 900 hours or 12 months

Every 3600 hours or 24 months

E

F

G

Every 4950 hours

Every 6750 to 7500 hours

Annually

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

Operation

z

Check the amount of coolant

z

Check the intercooler and the coolant radiator for debris

Renew the canister of the coolant filter  (3)

z

Renew the coolant  (4)

z

z

z

Check the condition of the, , drive belt

Drain water from the fuel pre-filter  (1)

z

z

Renew the canister of the fuel filter and renew the fuel strainer

Ensure that the atomisers are checked  (2)

Ensure that the idle speed is checked and adjusted, if it is necessary  (2)

Check the amount of lubricating oil in the sump

Check the lubricating oil pressure at the gauge  (1)

Renew the engine lubricating oil  (5)

z

z

z

z

z

z

Renew the canister of the lubricating oil filter

Clean or renew the air filter element (or earlier if in extremely dusty conditions)

Ensure that the valve tip clearances of the engine are checked and, if necessary,

z

(2)

adjusted

Ensure that the turbocharger impeller and the turbocharger compressor casing are

z

z

(2)

cleaned

Ensure that the alternator, the starter motor, and the turbocharger, etc. are checked  (2)

Inspect the thermostat  (2)

Inspect the electrical system  (2)

z

z

(1) If one is fitted.

(2) By a person who has had the correct training.

(3) Also if the coolant system has been drained.

(4) The system should be flushed and a new filter canister fitted.

(5) The oil change interval will change with the sulphur content of the fuel (see the table below and "Fuel specification" on page 33).

The interval to change the canister of the lubricating oil filter is not affected.

Fuel sulphur content (%)

Oil change interval

Normal

75% of normal

50% of normal

<0.5

0.5 to 1.0

>1.0

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How to drain the cooling system

Warning! Do not drain the coolant while the engine is still hot and the system is under pressure because

dangerous hot coolant can be discharged.

1  Ensure that the machine is on level ground.

2  Remove the filler cap of the cooling system.

3  Remove the drain plug (A1) from the side of the cylinder block (below the rear of the fuel injection pump)

and the drain plug (B1) from the lubricating oil cooler in order to drain the engine. Ensure that the drain holes

are not restricted.

4  Open the tap or remove the drain plug at the bottom of the radiator in order to drain the radiator. If the radiator

does not have a tap or drain plug, disconnect the hose at the bottom of the radiator.

5  Flush the system with POWERPART Easy Flush.

6  Fit the drain plugs and the filler cap. Close the radiator tap or connect the radiator hose.

7  Renew the canister of the coolant filter, see "How to renew the canister of the coolant filter / inhibitor" on

page 23.

Caution: The canister contains a corrosion inhibitor which is circulated around the cooling system as the

coolant passes through the canister. It is important that only the genuine correct Perkins canister is used.

1

1

A

B

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1300 Series Models WF to WJ

How to fill the cooling system

Caution: See "Coolant specification" on page 35 for details of the correct coolant to be used in the cooling

system. If coolant is added to the system during service, it must consist of the same original mixture as used

to fill the system. The engine must be allowed to cool before coolant is added.

If coolant has to be added to the cooling system, mix 227 ml (8 ounces) of Perkins inhibitor to 4,54 litres

(1 gallon) 1.2 US gallons of coolant.

The inhibitor is prepared especially for these engines and is available from your Perkins Distributor.

Part numbers for the inhibitor are shown in the table below:

Quantity (litres)

0,6

1,0

208,0

Part number

1 815 586 C1

1 815 587 C1

1 815 583 C1

1  Remove the filler cap of the cooling system.

2  The cooling system must be filled very slowly in order to eliminate air. Fill the cooling system until coolant

reaches the bottom of the filler tube. Fit the filler cap.

3  Start the engine. Allow the engine to operate at a fast idle until the engine reaches its normal temperature

of operation. Stop the engine and allow it to cool.

4  Remove carefully the filler cap and add coolant until the level of the coolant reaches the filler tube. Fit the

filler cap.

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How to renew the canister of the coolant filter / inhibitor

Warning! Do not remove the canister while the engine is still hot and under pressure because dangerous hot

fluid can be discharged.

Caution: The canister contains a corrosion inhibitor which is circulated around the cooling system as the

coolant passes through the canister. It is important that only the genuine correct Perkins canister is used.

1  When the engine has cooled, remove the radiator filler cap to release the system pressure. Note: When the

system pressure is released, valves will close in the filter canister and in the housing for the canister. This will

prevent the loss of coolant when the filter is removed.

2  Thoroughly clean the outside surfaces of the coolant filter assembly.

3  Use a strap wrench or similar tool to loosen the filter canister and remove the canister (A). Valves in the filter

head will prevent the loss of coolant when the canister is removed.

4  Ensure that the threaded adaptor (A2) is secure in the filter head and that the inside of the head is clean.

5  Lubricate lightly the seal (A1) on top of the new canister with clean engine coolant. Fit the new canister to

the filter head and tighten, by hand only. Do not overtighten the canister.

1

2

A

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1300 Series Models WF to WJ

How to check the drive belt

There is no need to check the tension of the belt as the tension is set automatically. The condition of the belt

should be checked. The belt should be renewed if there are cracks in the belt or if the belt is contaminated by

oil or grease.

How to renew the drive belt

1  Fit a square headed lever (A3) into the 12,7 mm (0.5 in) hole (A2) in the tensioner assembly (A1). Operate

the lever to release the tension from the belt (A4) and remove the belt. The tensioner will return to its original

position by spring pressure. Remove the lever.

2  With the lever in the tensioner, pull the tensioner outwards. Put the new belt in position around all of the

pulleys. Ensure that the tensioner pulley (A5) is on the outside of the belt. Allow the tensioner to return and

tension the belt. Remove the lever.

1

4

2

5

3

A

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1300 Series Models WF to WJ

Fuel pre-filter

This will normally be fitted between the fuel tank and the engine. Check the filter bowl for water at regular

intervals and drain as necessary.

How to renew the fuel strainer and the canister of the fuel filter

The fuel filter assembly has a fuel strainer to remove larger particles from the fuel and a filter canister to remove

the smaller particles. The fuel strainer and the filter canister should be renewed at the same time.

1  Thoroughly clean the outside surfaces of the fuel filter assembly.

2  Use a strap wrench or similar tool to loosen the filter canister, and remove the canister.

1

3  Use a 29 mm (1  /   in ) socket spanner to remove the plastic cover (A5) from the fuel strainer. Remove the

8

strainer (A3) and the 'O' ring (A4) from the cover.

4  Fit a new strainer and a new 'O' ring to the cover and fit the cover to the filter head.

Caution: Ensure that the open end of the new strainer is toward the filter head.

5  Ensure that the threaded adaptor (A1) is secure in the filter head and that the inside of the head is clean.

Lubricate lightly the seal (A2) of the new canister with clean diesel fuel. Fit the new canister to the filter head

1

and tighten the canister by hand until the seal contacts the filter head. Tighten the canister a further  /   turn by

2

hand only. Do not use a strap wrench.

6  Eliminate the air from the fuel filter, see "How to eliminate air from the fuel system" on page 28.

Caution: It is important that only the genuine Perkins parts are used. The use of wrong parts could damage

the fuel injection pump.

3

1

4

5

2

A

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1300 Series Models WF to WJ

Atomiser fault

An atomiser fault can cause an engine misfire.

In order to find which atomiser is defective, operate the engine at a fast idle speed. Loosen and tighten the

union nut of the high-pressure fuel pipe at each atomiser. When the union nut of the defective atomiser is

loosened, it has little or no effect on the engine speed.

Warning! Ensure that the fuel does not spray onto your skin.

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1300 Series Models WF to WJ

How to renew an atomiser

1  Clean thoroughly the area around the atomiser to be removed.

2  Release the spring clips and remove the fuel leak-off pipe.

3  Remove the union nuts of the high-pressure pipe from the atomiser and from the fuel injection pump. Do not

bend the pipe. If necessary, remove the pipe clamps.

4  Remove the setscrew (A5) of the atomiser clamp and remove the clamp (A4), the atomiser (A2) and its seat

washer (A3). Remove the dust seal (A1) and fit a new dust seal onto the new atomiser.

Caution: Do not turn the atomiser from side to side during the removal of the atomiser as this action could

loosen the atomiser sleeve in the cylinder head.

5  Put the new atomiser in position with its new dust seal and a new seat washer. Ensure that the fuel leak-off

connection is not toward the engine. Fit the clamp and engage the clamp setscrew. Ensure that the atomiser

is not tilted and tighten the setscrew to 25 Nm (19 lbf ft) 2,5 kgf m.

6  Fit the high-pressure fuel pipe and tighten the union nuts to 40 Nm (30 lbf ft) 4,0 kgf m. If necessary, fit the

pipe clamps.

Cautions:

z   Do not tighten the union nuts of the high-pressure pipes more than the recommended torque tension.

z   If there is a leakage from the union nut, ensure that the pipe is correctly aligned with the atomiser inlet.

z   Do not tighten the atomiser union nut more, as this can cause a restriction at the end of the pipe. This can

affect the fuel delivery.

7  Push the leak off pipe onto the leak off connection and fit the spring clips.

8  Operate the engine and check for leakage of fuel and air.

1

2

3

4

5

A

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How to eliminate air from the fuel system

If air enters the fuel system, it must be eliminated before the engine can be started.

Air can enter the system if:

z   The fuel tank is drained during normal operation.

z   The low-pressure fuel pipes are disconnected.

z   A part of the low-pressure fuel system leaks during engine operation.

In order to eliminate air from the fuel system, proceed as follows:

1  Loosen the vent plug on the top of the fuel filter head (A1).

2  Operate the plunger of the fuel priming pump (A2) until fuel, free from air, comes from the filter vent point.

Tighten the vent plug.

3  Ensure that the manual stop control is in the "run" position. If an electrical stop control is used, turn the start

key to the "ON" position.

4  Operate the starter motor for intervals of 15 seconds until the engine starts. If the engine runs correctly for

a short time and then stops or runs roughly, check for air in the fuel system. If there is air in the fuel system,

there is probably a leakage in the low pressure system. Stop the engine and turn the start key to the "OFF"

position.

2

1

A

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1300 Series Models WF to WJ

How to renew the lubricating oil

1  Operate the engine until it is warm.

2  Stop the engine.

3  Put a container with a capacity of approximately 30 litres (6.5 gallons) 32 US quarts beneath the sump.

Remove the sump drain plug (A1) and its washer and drain the lubricating oil from the sump. Ensure that the

washer is not damaged. Fit the drain plug and its washer and tighten the plug to 68 Nm (50 lbf ft) 6,9 kgf m.

4  Turn the handle on top of the filler cap (B2) counter-clockwise to release the filler cap and dipstick assembly

from the filler tube.

5  Fill the sump to the "FULL" mark on the dipstick (B1) with new and clean lubricating oil of an approved grade,

see "Lubricating oil specification" on page 34.

6  Fit the dipstick and filler cap assembly and turn the handle on the cap clockwise to tighten the filler cap in

the filler tube.

7  Remove the container of used lubricating oil from beneath the engine.

Warning! Discard the used lubricating oil in a safe place and in accordance with local regulations.

Start the engine and check for lubricating oil leakage. Stop the engine. After 15 minutes check the oil level on

the dipstick and, if necessary, put more lubricating oil into the sump.

Caution: Do not fill the sump past the "FULL" mark on the dipstick.

Full

Add

1

1

2

A

B

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1300 Series Models WF to WJ

How to renew the canister of the lubricating oil filter

1  Put a tray under the filter to retain spilt lubricating oil. Clean thoroughly the outside surfaces of the filter

assembly.

2  Use a strap wrench or similar tool to loosen the filter canister. Remove and discard the canister. Ensure that

the adaptor (A1) is secure in the filter head.

Warning! Discard the used canister and lubricating oil in a safe place and in accordance with local regulations.

3  Clean inside the filter head

4  Lubricate the seal (A2) on top of the canister with clean engine lubricating oil.

5  Fit the new canister and tighten by hand until the seal contacts the filter head. Tighten the canister a further

1

3

/  to   /   of a turn by hand only. Do not use a strap wrench.

2

4

6  Ensure that there is lubricating oil in the sump. Ensure that the engine will not start and operate the starter

motor until oil pressure is obtained. To ensure that the engine will not start, either put the manual stop control

in the "stop" position or disconnect the electrical stop control of the fuel injection pump. Oil pressure is indicated

when the warning light is extinguished or by a reading on the gauge.

7  Start the engine and check for leakage from the filter. Stop the engine. After 15 minutes check the oil level

on the dipstick and, if necessary, put more lubricating oil into the sump.

Caution: Do not fill the sump past the "FULL" mark on the dipstick.

1

2

A

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Air filter

Environmental conditions have an important effect on the frequency at which the air filter needs service.

The filter element must be cleaned or renewed according to the manufacturer's recommendations.

Restriction indicator

The restriction indicator for these engines must work at a pressure difference of 635 mm (25 in) of water gauge.

It is fitted on the air filter outlet or between the air filter and the induction manifold.

The restriction indicator should be tested according to the manufacturer's recommendations.

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1300 Series Models WF to WJ

How to set the valve tip clearances

The valve tip clearance is checked with feeler gauges between the top of the valve stem and the rocker lever

(B), with the engine cold. The correct clearance for the inlet valves and the exhaust valves is 0,64 mm

(0.025 in). The valve positions are shown at (A).

The arrangement of the valves for each cylinder in sequence is inlet valve then exhaust valve.

Note: Number 1 cylinder is at the front of the engine.

1  Disconnect the air inlet pipe at the rocker cover/induction manifold.

2  Release the 13 cap screws which retain the rocker cover and remove the cover.

3  Turn the crankshaft in the normal direction of rotation until valve 11 (A) has just opened and valve 12 has

not closed fully. Check/adjust the clearances of valves 1 and 2.

4  Set valves 3 and 4 as indicated above then check/adjust the clearances of valves 9 and 10.

5  Set valves 7 and 8 then check/adjust the clearances of valves 5 and 6.

6  Set valves 1 and 2 then check/adjust the clearances of valves 11 and 12.

7  Set valves 9 and 10 then check/adjust the clearances of valves 3 and 4.

8  Set valves 5 and 6 then check/adjust the clearances of valves 7 and 8.

9  If necessary, put a new rocker cover/induction manifold gasket in position on the cylinder head. Align

carefully the cover and the gasket. Fit the cap screws which retain the rocker cover and tighten them to 17 Nm

(13 lbf ft) 1,7 kgf m.

10  Connect the air inlet pipe to the rocker cover.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

A

B

W202/1

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5

Engine fluids

5

Fuel specification

To get the correct power and performance from your engine, use good quality fuel. The recommended fuel

specification for Perkins engines is indicated below:

Cetane number

Viscosity

Density

Sulphur

Distillation

50 minimum

2.0/4.5 centistokes at 40 °C

0,835/0,855 kg/litre

0.2% of mass, maximum

85% at 350 °C

Cetane number indicates ignition performance. A fuel with a low cetane number can cause cold start problems

and affect combustion.

Viscosity is the resistance to flow and engine performance can be affected if it is outside the limits.

Density: A lower density reduces engine power, a higher density increases engine power and exhaust smoke.

Sulphur: A high sulphur content (not normally found in Europe, North America or Australasia) can cause

engine wear. Where only high sulphur fuels are available, it is necessary to use a highly alkaline lubricating oil

in the engine or to renew the lubricating oil more frequently, refer to the maintenance "Schedules" on page 20.

Distillation: This is an indication of the mixture of different hydrocarbons in the fuel. A high ratio of light-weight

hydrocarbons can affect the combustion characteristics.

Low temperature fuels

Special winter fuels may be available for engine operation at temperatures below 0 °C. These fuels have a

lower viscosity and also limit the wax formation in the fuel at low temperatures. If wax formation occurs, this

could stop the fuel flow through the filter.

If you need advice on adjustments to an engine setting or to the lubricating oil change periods which may be

necessary because of the standard of the available fuel, consult the Technical Service Department of Perkins

International Limited at Peterborough or your nearest Perkins Distributor.

Aviation kerosene fuels

Caution: Do not use aviation kerosene fuel JP4.

JP5 and JP8 can be used, but they can affect engine performance and wear in the fuel injection pump could

increase. It is recommended that you consult the Technical Service Department of Perkins International

Limited at Peterborough if aviation kerosene fuel is to be used.

Caution: Aviation kerosene fuels are more flammable than diesel fuel and need careful storage and careful

management.

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1300 Series Models WF to WJ

Lubricating oil specification

Use only a good quality lubricating oil which is not less than the specification API CF-4 or CCMC D5.

Caution: The type of lubricating oil to be used may be affected by the quality of the fuel which is available. For

further details see "Fuel specification" on page 33.

Always ensure that the correct viscosity grade of lubricating oil is used for the ambient temperature range in

which the engine will run as shown in the chart (A).

A

0W

5W20

10W30

15W40

20W50

20

30

40

-30

-22

-20

-4

-10

14

0

10

50

20

68

30

40

50 C

o

32

86

104    122 F

o

B

A

Viscosity chart

A = Recommended viscosity

B = Ambient temperature

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Coolant specification

The quality of the coolant which is used can have a great effect on the efficiency and life of the cooling system.

The recommendations indicated below can help to maintain a good cooling system and to protect it against

frost and/or corrosion.

If the correct procedures are not used, Perkins cannot be held responsible for frost or corrosion damage.

1  If it is possible, use clean soft water in the coolant.

2  If an antifreeze mixture, other than Perkins POWERPART, is used to prevent frost damage, it must have an

ethanediol base (ethylene glycol) with a corrosion inhibitor. It is recommended that the corrosion inhibitor is of

the sodium nitrite/sodium benzoate type. The antifreeze mixture must be an efficient coolant at all ambient

temperatures and it must provide protection against corrosion. It must also have a specification at least as

good as the requirements of either BS6580 or MOD AL39. Perkins POWERPART antifreeze exceeds the

requirements of the above standard.

The quality of the antifreeze coolant must be checked at least once a year, for example, at the beginning of

the cold period. The coolant must be renewed every two years.

The antifreeze mixture must consist of equal quantities of antifreeze and water. Concentrations of more than

50% of antifreeze must not be used because these can affect adversely the performance of the coolant.

3  When frost protection is not necessary, it is still an advantage to use an approved antifreeze mixture

because this gives a protection against corrosion and also raises the boiling point of the coolant. If an approved

antifreeze mixture is not available, add a correct mixture of corrosion inhibitor to the water.

Caution: Certain corrosion inhibitor mixtures could cause damage to some engine components. It is

recommended that the corrosion inhibitor available from Perkins distributors is used. The part numbers for this

corrosion inhibitor are: 1 815 586 C1 (0,6 litre); 1 815 587 C1 (1,0 litre); 1 815 583 C1 (208 litre). If there is

doubt about the corrosion inhibitor to be used, contact the Service Department, Perkins International Limited,

Peterborough.

Renew the coolant and coolant filter in accordance with the maintenance "Schedules" on page 20.

User’s Handbook, TPD 1315E, issue 6

35

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36

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1300 Series Models WF to WJ

6

Fault diagnosis

6

Problems and possible causes

Possible causes

Checks by the workshop

Problem

Checks by the user

1, 2, 3, 4

5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14,   34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 42, 43,

personnel

The starter motor turns the engine too slowly

The engine does not start

15, 17

5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12,13, 14,  34, 36, 37, 38, 40, 42, 43,

15, 16, 17, 19

44

The engine is difficult to start

Not enough power

Misfire

44

8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 16, 17,    34, 36, 37, 38, 39, 42, 43,

44, 61, 63, 64

18, 19, 20, 21

34, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41,

43

8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 15, 20, 22

11, 13, 15, 17, 18, 19, 21,

22

34, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 42,

43, 44, 63

34, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 42,

43, 44, 61, 63

High fuel consumption

Black exhaust smoke

11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21, 22

36, 37, 38, 39, 42, 44, 45,

52, 58, 62

Blue or white exhaust smoke

4, 15, 21, 23

The pressure of the lubricating oil system is too low

The engine knocks

4, 24, 25, 26

46, 47, 48, 50, 51, 59

36, 37, 40, 42, 44, 46, 52,

53, 60

9, 13, 15, 17, 20, 22, 23

7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15,

16, 18, 20, 22, 23

The engine runs erratically

34, 38, 40, 41, 44, 52, 60

34, 38, 39, 40, 41, 44, 52,

54

Vibration

13, 18, 20, 27, 28

The pressure of the lubricating oil system is too high

The engine oil temperature is too high

Crankcase pressure

4, 25

11, 13, 15, 19, 27, 29, 30,

32, 65

49

34, 36, 37, 39, 52, 55, 56,

57, 64

31, 33

39, 42, 44, 45, 52

37, 39, 40, 42, 43, 44, 45,

53, 60

Bad compression

11, 22

The engine starts and stops

10, 11, 12

User’s Handbook, TPD 1315E, issue 6

37

This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


 

6

1300 Series Models WF to WJ

List of possible causes

1  Battery capacity low.

2  Bad electrical connections.

3  Fault in starter motor.

4  Wrong grade of lubricating oil.

5  Starter motor turns engine too slowly.

6  Fuel tank empty.

7  Fault in stop control.

8  Restriction in a fuel pipe.

9  Fault in fuel lift pump.

10  Dirty fuel filter element.

11  Restriction in air induction system.

12  Air in fuel system.

13  Fault in atomisers or atomisers of an incorrect type.

14  Cold start system used incorrectly.

15  Fault in cold start system.

16  Restriction in fuel tank vent.

17  Wrong type or grade of fuel used.

18  Restricted movement of engine speed control.

19  Restriction in exhaust pipe.

20  Engine temperature is too high.

21  Engine temperature is too low.

22  Incorrect valve tip clearances.

23  Too much oil or oil of the wrong type is used in wet type air cleaner, if one is fitted.

24  Not enough lubricating oil in sump.

25  Defective gauge.

26  Dirty lubricating oil filter element.

27  Fan damaged.

28  Fault in engine mounting or flywheel housing.

29  Too much lubricating oil in sump.

30  Restriction in air or water passages of radiator.

31  Restriction in breather pipe.

32  Insufficient coolant in system.

33  Vacuum pipe leaks or fault in exhauster.

34  Fault in fuel injection pump.

35  Broken drive on fuel injection pump.

36  Timing of fuel injection pump is incorrect.

37  Valve timing is incorrect.

38  Bad compression.

39  Cylinder head gasket leaks.

40  Valves are not free.

41  Wrong high-pressure pipes.

42  Worn cylinder bores.

43  Leakage between valves and seats.

44  Piston rings are not free or they are worn or broken.

45  Valve stems and/or guides are worn.

46  Crankshaft bearings are worn or damaged.

38

User’s Handbook, TPD 1315E, issue 6

This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


 

6

1300 Series Models WF to WJ

47  Lubricating oil pump is worn.

48  Relief valve does not close.

49  Relief valve does not open.

50  Relief valve spring is broken.

51  Fault in suction pipe of lubricating oil pump.

52  Piston is damaged.

53  Piston height is incorrect.

54  Flywheel housing or flywheel is not aligned correctly.

55  Fault in thermostat or thermostat is of an incorrect type.

56  Restriction in coolant passages.

57  Fault in water pump.

58  Valve stem seal is damaged.

59  Restriction in sump strainer.

60  Valve spring is broken.

61  Turbocharger impeller is damaged or dirty.

62  Lubricating oil seal of turbocharger leaks.

63  Induction system leaks.

64  Turbocharger waste-gate does not work correctly, if one is fitted.

65  Drive belt for water pump is loose.

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