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珀金斯Perkins1600操作保养


详细描述:

Operation and

Maintenance

Manual

1600 Series Industrial  Engine

XGA (Engine)

XGB (Engine)

XGD (Engine)

XGE (Engine)

XGF (Engine)

XGH (Engine)

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

Important Safety Information

Most  accidents    tha t involve  produc  t  op eration,  ma intena nc e and   repair   are  caus  ed  by  failure  to

ob serve  basic   safety   rules  or  precautions  .  An accident    can   often  be  avoided   by  recog nizing  pote ntially

ha za rdous  situations   before   an  accident    oc curs . A person    mus t be  alert   to pote ntial  ha za rds.  This

person   should   also  ha ve  the  ne cessary   training,  skills  and   tools  to perform   the se  func tions properly.

Improper operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair  of this product can be dangerous and

could result in injury  or death.

Do not operate or perform any lubrication, maintenance or repair on this  product, until you have

read and understood the operation, lubrication, maintenance and repair information.

Sa fety precautions     and  warning s  are   provided   in this  ma nua l and   on  the  produc t.  If the se  ha za rd

warning s  are  not  he eded,   bod ily injury  or death   could   oc cur to  you  or to  othe r persons  .

The  ha za rds are   identified   by  the  “Safety  Alert  Symb ol”  and  followed  by  a  “Signa l  Word” suc h  as

“DANGER”, “WARNING”  or “CAUTION”.  The Sa fety  Alert  “WARNING” label  is  shown   below.

The  me aning  of  this safety   alert   symb ol is  as  follows:

Attention! Become Alert! Your Safety is  Involved.

The  me ssage   tha t appears     und er the   warning  explains    the  ha za rd and   can  be   either  written  or

pictorially   presente  d.

Op erations  tha t  ma y caus e  produc  t dama  ge  are  identified   by  “NOTICE” labels   on  the  produc  t and   in

this  pub lication.

Perkins cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard. The

warnings in this publication and on the product are, therefore, not all inclusive. If a tool, procedure,

work method or operating technique that is not specifically recommended by Perkins is used,

you must satisfy yourself that it is safe  for you and for others. You should also ensure that the

product will not be damaged or be  made unsafe by the operation, lubrication, maintenance or

repair procedures that you choose.

The  informa tion, specifications   ,  and  illustrations   in  this  pub lication  are   on the  basis    of informa tion tha t

was  available    at  the  time  tha t the  pub lication   was  written.   The  specifications   , torque  s,  pressure  s,

me asure me nts , adjustme  nts , illustrations ,  and  othe r  items  can  cha  ng e at  any  time.  These  cha ng es  can

affect   the  service   tha t is given   to the  produc  t.  Ob tain the  comp  lete  and  mos t current   informa tion before

you  start any   job. Pe  rkins  dealers   or   Pe rkins  distributors     ha ve  the  mos t current   informa tion  available.

When  replacement  parts  are  required  for  this

product Perkins recommends using Perkins

 replacement  parts.

Failure to heed this warning can lead to prema-

ture failures, product damage, personal injury or

death.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

SEBU8455

3

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Warranty Section

Warranty Information ............................................  86

Foreword ................................................................. 4

Index Section

Safety Section

Index .....................................................................  87

Safety Messages ....................................................  5

General Hazard Information ...................................  7

Burn Prevention .................................................... 10

Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention ............. 11

Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention ........ 13

Mounting and Dismounting ................................... 13

High Pressure Oil Lines ........................................ 13

Before Starting Engine .......................................... 14

Engine Starting .....................................................  15

Engine Stopping ...................................................  15

Electrical System ..................................................  15

Engine Electronics ................................................ 16

Product Information Section

General Information .............................................. 17

Product Identification Information  ........................  22

Operation Section

Lifting and Storage ................................................ 26

Features and Controls ..........................................  27

Engine Diagnostics ............................................... 38

Engine Starting .....................................................  39

Engine Operation .................................................. 42

Cold Weather Operation ....................................... 43

Engine Stopping ...................................................  46

Maintenance Section

Refill Capacities ....................................................  47

Maintenance Recommendations ..........................  60

Maintenance Interval Schedule ............................  63

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

4

SEBU8455

Foreword

Foreword

Recommended service should be performed at the

appropriate intervals as indicated in the Maintenance

Interval Schedule. The actual operating environment

of the engine also governs the Maintenance Interval

Schedule. Therefore, under extremely  severe,

dusty, wet or freezing cold  operating conditions,

more frequent lubrication and maintenance than is

specified in the Maintenance Interval Schedule may

be necessary.

Literature Information

This manual contains safety, operation instructions,

lubrication and maintenance information.  This

manual should be stored in or near the engine area

in a literature holder or literature storage area. Read,

study and keep it with  the literature and engine

information.

The maintenance schedule items are organized for

a preventive maintenance management program. If

the preventive maintenance program is followed, a

periodic tune-up is not required. The implementation

of a preventive maintenance management program

should minimize operating  costs through cost

avoidances resulting from reductions in unscheduled

downtime and failures.

English is the primary  language for all Perkins

publications. The English used facilitates translation

and consistency.

Some photographs or illustrations in this  manual

show details or attachments that may be different

from your engine. Guards and  covers may have

been removed for illustrative purposes. Continuing

improvement and advancement of product design

may have caused changes to your engine which are

not included in this manual. Whenever a question

arises regarding your engine, or this manual, please

consult with your Perkins dealer  or your Perkins

distributor for the latest available information.

Maintenance Intervals

Perform maintenance on items  at multiples of

the original requirement. We recommend that the

maintenance schedules be reproduced and displayed

near the engine as a convenient reminder. We also

recommend that a maintenance record be maintained

as part of the engine's permanent record.

Safety

Your authorized Perkins dealer  or your Perkins

distributor can assist  you in adjusting  your

maintenance schedule to meet the needs of  your

operating environment.

This safety section lists basic safety  precautions.

In addition, this  section identifies hazardous,

warning situations. Read and understand the basic

precautions listed in  the safety section before

operating or performing lubrication, maintenance and

repair on this product.

Overhaul

Major engine overhaul details are not  covered in

the Operation and Maintenance Manual  except

for the interval and the maintenance items  in that

interval. Major repairs should only be carried out by

Perkins authorized personnel. Your Perkins dealer

or your Perkins distributor offers a variety of options

regarding overhaul programs. If you  experience

a major engine failure, there  are also numerous

after failure overhaul options available. Consult with

your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for

information regarding these options.

Operation

Operating techniques outlined in this manual  are

basic. They assist with developing  the skills and

techniques required to operate the  engine more

efficiently and economically. Skill and techniques

develop as the operator gains  knowledge of the

engine and its capabilities.

The operation section is a reference for operators.

Photographs and illustrations guide the  operator

through procedures of inspecting, starting, operating

and stopping the engine. This section also includes a

discussion of electronic diagnostic information.

California Proposition 65 Warning

Diesel engine exhaust and some of its constituents

are known to the State of California to cause cancer,

birth defects, and other reproductive harm. Battery

posts, terminals and related accessories contain lead

and lead compounds. Wash hands after handling.

Maintenance

The maintenance section is a guide to engine care.

The illustrated, step-by-step instructions are grouped

by service hours and/or calendar time maintenance

intervals. Items in the maintenance schedule  are

referenced to detailed instructions that follow.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

SEBU8455

5

Safety Section

Safety Messages

Safety Section

i04257112

Safety Messages

There may be several specific warning signs on your

engine. The exact location and a description of the

warning signs are reviewed in this section. Please

become familiar with all warning signs.

Ensure that all of the warning signs are legible. Clean

the warning signs or replace the  warning signs if

the words cannot be read or if the illustrations are

not visible. Use a cloth, water, and  soap to clean

the warning signs. Do not use solvents, gasoline, or

other harsh chemicals. Solvents, gasoline, or harsh

chemicals could loosen the adhesive that secures the

warning signs. The warning signs that are loosened

could drop off the engine.

Replace any warning sign  that is damaged or

missing. If a warning sign is attached to a part of the

engine that is replaced, install a new warning sign on

the replacement part. Your Perkins distributor can

provide new warning signs.

(1) Universal Warning

Do not operate or work on this equipment unless

you  have read  and understand  the  instructions

and warnings  in the Operation  and Maintenance

Manuals.  Failure  to   follow  the  instructions  or

heed the  warnings could result  in serious injury

or death.

g01154807

Illustration 1

Typical example

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

6

SEBU8455

Safety Section

Safety Messages

g02428016

Illustration 2

(1) Universal warning

The universal warning labels (1) are located on the

rear left side of the valve mechanism cover and the

rear right side of the valve mechanism cover.

(2) Hand (High Pressure)

Contact with  high pressure fuel  may cause fluid

penetration and  burn hazards. High pressure  fu-

el spray  may cause  a fire  hazard. Failure to  fol-

low these inspection, maintenance and service in-

structions may cause personal injury or death.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

SEBU8455

7

Safety Section

General Hazard Information

g02835016

Illustration 3

(2) Hand (High Pressure)

The warning label for the  Hand (High Pressure)

(2) is a wrap around label  that is installed on the

high-pressure oil line.

•  Tampering with the engine installation or tampering

with the OEM supplied wiring can be dangerous.

Personal injury, death and/or engine damage could

result.

i04257489

•  Vent the engine exhaust to the outside when the

engine is operated in an enclosed area.

General Hazard Information

•  Wear a hard hat, protective glasses,  and other

protective equipment, as required.

•  When work is performed around an engine that is

operating, wear protective devices for ears in order

to help prevent damage to hearing.

•  Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry that can snag

on controls or on other parts of the engine.

•  Ensure that all protective guards and all covers are

secured in place on the engine.

•  Never put maintenance fluids into glass containers.

Glass containers can break.

•  Use all cleaning solutions with care.

•  Report all necessary repairs.

g00104545

Illustration 4

Attach a “Do Not Operate” warning tag or a similar

warning tag to the start  switch or to the controls

before the engine is serviced or before the engine is

repaired. Attach the warning tags to the engine and

to each operator control station. When appropriate,

disconnect the starting controls.

Unless other instructions are provided, perform the

maintenance under the following conditions:

•  The engine is stopped. Ensure that the  engine

cannot be started.

Do not allow unauthorized personnel on the engine,

or around the engine  when the engine is being

serviced.

•  The protective locks or the  controls are in the

applied position.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

8

SEBU8455

Safety Section

General Hazard Information

•  Disconnect the batteries when  maintenance

is performed or when  the electrical system is

serviced. Disconnect the battery ground leads.

Tape the leads in order to help prevent sparks.

•  Disconnect the connector for the unit injector that

is located on the valve cover base. This will help

prevent personal injury from the high voltage to the

unit injectors. Do not come in contact with the unit

injector terminals while the engine is operating.

•  Do not attempt any repairs or any adjustments to

the engine while the engine is operating.

•  Do not attempt any repairs that are not understood.

Use the proper tools. Replace any equipment that

is damaged or repair the equipment.

g00702020

Illustration 5

•  Wear a hard hat, protective glasses,  and other

protective equipment, as required.

•  For initial start-up of a new engine or for starting an

engine that has been serviced, make provisions to

stop the engine if an overspeed occurs. This may

be accomplished by shutting off the fuel supply

and/or the air supply to the engine.

•  When work is performed around an engine that is

operating, wear protective devices for ears in order

to help prevent damage to hearing.

•  Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry that can snag

on controls or on other parts of the engine.

•  Start the engine from the operators station (cab).

Never short across the starting motor terminals or

the batteries. This could bypass the engine neutral

start system and/or the electrical system could be

damaged.

•  Ensure that all protective guards and all covers are

secured in place on the engine.

•  Never put maintenance fluids into glass containers.

Engine exhaust contains products of combustion

which may be harmful to your health. Always start the

engine and operate the engine in a well ventilated

area. If the engine is in an enclosed area, vent the

engine exhaust to the outside.

Glass containers can break.

•  Use all cleaning solutions with care.

•  Report all necessary repairs.

Cautiously remove the following  parts. To help

prevent spraying or splashing of pressurized fluids,

hold a rag over the part that is being removed.

Unless other instructions are provided, perform

the maintenance under the following conditions:

•  The engine is stopped. Ensure that the  engine

cannot be started.

•  Filler caps

•  Grease fittings

•  Pressure taps

•  Breathers

•  Disconnect the batteries when  maintenance

is performed or when the  electrical system is

serviced. Disconnect the battery ground leads.

Tape the leads in order to help prevent sparks.

•  Do not attempt any repairs that are not understood.

Use the proper tools. Replace any equipment that

is damaged or repair the equipment.

•  Drain plugs

Use caution when  cover plates are removed.

Gradually loosen, but do not remove  the last two

bolts or nuts that are located  at opposite ends of

the cover plate or the device. Before removing the

last two bolts or nuts, pry the cover loose in order to

relieve any spring pressure or other pressure.

Pressurized Air and Water

Pressurized air and/or water  can cause debris

and/or hot water to be blown out. This could result in

personal injury.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

SEBU8455

9

Safety Section

General Hazard Information

Containing Fluid Spillage

When pressurized air and/or pressurized water is

used for cleaning, wear protective clothing, protective

shoes, and eye protection. Eye protection includes

goggles or a protective face shield.

NOTICE

Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained

during performance of inspection, maintenance, test-

ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to

collect the fluid with suitable containers before open-

ing any  compartment or  disassembling any  compo-

nent containing fluids.

The maximum air pressure for cleaning purposes

must be below 205 kPa  (30 psi). The maximum

water pressure for cleaning purposes must be below

275 kPa (40 psi).

Fluid Penetration

Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and

mandates.

Pressure can be trapped in the hydraulic circuit long

after the engine has been stopped. The pressure can

cause hydraulic fluid or items such as pipe plugs to

escape rapidly if the pressure is not relieved correctly.

Asbestos Information

Do not remove any hydraulic components or parts

until pressure has been relieved or personal injury

may occur. Do  not disassemble any hydraulic

components or parts until pressure has been relieved

or personal injury may occur.  Refer to the OEM

information for any procedures that are required to

relieve the hydraulic pressure.

g00702022

Illustration 7

Perkins replacement parts that are shipped  from

Perkins are asbestos free. Perkins recommends

the use of only genuine Perkins replacement parts.

Use the following guidelines when you handle any

replacement parts that contain asbestos or when you

handle asbestos debris.

Use caution. Avoid inhaling  dust that might be

generated when you handle components that contain

asbestos fibers. Inhaling this dust can be hazardous

to your health. The components that may contain

asbestos fibers are brake pads, brake bands, lining

material, clutch plates, and  some gaskets. The

asbestos that is used in these components is usually

bound in a resin or  sealed in some way. Normal

handling is not hazardous unless airborne dust that

contains asbestos is generated.

g00687600

Illustration 6

Always use a board or cardboard when you check

for a leak. Leaking fluid that is under pressure can

penetrate body tissue. Fluid penetration can cause

serious injury and possible death. A pin hole leak can

cause severe injury. If fluid is injected into your skin,

you must get treatment immediately. Seek treatment

from a doctor that is familiar with this type of injury.

If dust that may contain asbestos is present, there

are several guidelines that should be followed:

•  Never use compressed air for cleaning.

•  Avoid brushing materials that contain asbestos.

•  Avoid grinding materials that contain asbestos.

•  Use a wet method in order to clean up asbestos

materials.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

10

SEBU8455

Safety Section

Burn Prevention

•  A vacuum cleaner that is equipped  with a high

efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA) can also be

used.

Relieve all pressure  in the following systems,

hydraulic system, lubrication system, fuel system,

and the coolant system before the related items are

disconnected.

•  Use exhaust ventilation on permanent machining

jobs.

After the engine has stopped, you must wait for 10

minutes in order to allow the pressure to be purged

from the high-pressure lines before any service or

repair is performed on the engine lines.

•  Wear an approved respirator if there is no other

way to control the dust.

•  Comply with applicable rules  and regulations

for the work place.  In the United States, use

Occupational Safety and Health Administration

(OSHA) requirements. These OSHA requirements

can be found in “29 CFR 1910.1001”.

Allow the pressure to be purged in the air system, in

the hydraulic system, in the lubrication system, or

in the cooling system before any lines,  fittings, or

related items are disconnected.

Induction System

•  Obey environmental regulations for the disposal

of asbestos.

•  Stay away from areas that might have asbestos

particles in the air.

Sulfuric Acid Burn Hazard may cause serious per-

sonal injury or death.

Dispose of Waste Properly

The  exhaust  gas   cooler  may  contain  a  small

amount of sulfuric acid.  The use of fuel with sul-

fur levels  greater than 15  ppm may increase  the

amount of sulfuric acid formed. The  sulfuric acid

may  spill from  the cooler  during  service of  the

engine. The sulfuric acid  will burn the eyes, skin

and clothing on  contact. Always wear the appro-

priate personal  protective  equipment (PPE)  that

is noted  on a material  safety data  sheet (MSDS)

for sulfuric acid. Always follow  the directions for

first aid  that are noted  on a material  safety data

sheet (MSDS) for sulfuric acid.

Coolant

g00706404

Illustration 8

When the engine is at operating temperature,  the

engine coolant is hot. The  coolant is also under

pressure. The radiator and all lines to the heaters or

to the engine contain hot coolant.

Improperly disposing of waste  can threaten the

environment. Potentially harmful fluids should be

disposed of according to local regulations.

Any contact with hot coolant or with steam can cause

severe burns. Allow cooling system components to

cool before the cooling system is drained.

Always use leakproof containers when you  drain

fluids. Do not pour waste onto the ground, down a

drain, or into any source of water.

Check that the coolant level after  the engine has

stopped and the engine has been allowed to cool.

i04259330

Burn Prevention

Ensure that the filler cap is cool before removing the

filler cap. The filler cap must be cool enough to touch

with a bare hand. Remove the filler  cap slowly in

order to relieve pressure.

Do not touch any  part of an operating  engine

system. Allow the engine system to cool before any

maintenance is performed.

Cooling system conditioner contains alkali. Alkali can

cause personal injury. Do not allow alkali to contact

the skin, the eyes, or the mouth.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

SEBU8455

11

Safety Section

Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention

Oils

Remove all flammable combustible materials  or

conductive materials such as fuel, oil, and debris from

the engine. Do not allow any flammable combustible

materials or conductive materials to accumulate on

the engine.

Hot oil and hot lubricating components can cause

personal injury. Do not allow hot oil  to contact the

skin. Also, do not allow hot components to contact

the skin.

Store fuels and lubricants  in correctly marked

containers away from unauthorized persons. Store

oily rags and any flammable materials in protective

containers. Do not smoke in areas that are used for

storing flammable materials.

Batteries

Electrolyte is an acid. Electrolyte can cause personal

injury. Do not allow electrolyte to contact the skin or

the eyes. Always wear protective glasses for servicing

batteries. Wash hands after touching the batteries

and connectors. Use of gloves is recommended.

Do not expose the engine to any flame.

Exhaust shields (if equipped) protect hot exhaust

components from oil or fuel spray in case of a line,

a tube, or a seal failure. Exhaust  shields must be

installed correctly.

i04259389

Fire Prevention and Explosion

Prevention

Do not weld on lines or tanks that contain flammable

fluids. Do not flame cut lines or tanks  that contain

flammable fluid. Clean any  such lines or tanks

thoroughly with a nonflammable solvent  prior to

welding or flame cutting.

Wiring must be kept in good condition. All electrical

wires must be correctly routed and securely attached.

Check all electrical wires daily. Repair  any wires

that are loose or frayed  before you operate the

engine. Clean all electrical connections and tighten

all electrical connections.

Eliminate all wiring that is unattached or unnecessary.

Do not use any wires or cables that are smaller than

the recommended gauge. Do not bypass any fuses

and/or circuit breakers.

Arcing or sparking  could cause a fire. Secure

connections, recommended wiring, and correctly

maintained battery cables will help to prevent arcing

or sparking.

g00704000

Illustration 9

All fuels, most lubricants, and some coolant mixtures

are flammable.

Inspect all  lines and hoses  for wear or  for

Flammable fluids that are leaking or spilled onto hot

surfaces or onto electrical components can cause

a fire. Fire may cause personal injury and property

damage.

deterioration. The hoses must be correctly routed.

The lines and hoses must have adequate support

and secure clamps. Tighten all connections to the

recommended torque. Leaks can cause fires.

A flash fire may result if the covers  for the engine

crankcase are removed within 15 minutes after an

emergency shutdown.

Oil filters and fuel filters must be correctly installed.

The filter housings must be tightened to the correct

torque.

Determine whether the engine will be operated in an

environment that allows combustible gases to be

drawn into the air inlet system. These gases could

cause the engine to overspeed.  Personal injury,

property damage, or engine damage could result.

If the application involves the presence of combustible

gases, consult your Perkins  dealer and/or your

Perkins distributor for additional information about

suitable protection devices.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

12

SEBU8455

Safety Section

Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention

Incorrect jumper cable connections  can cause

an explosion that  can result in injury. Refer  to

the Operation Section of this  manual for specific

instructions.

Do not charge a frozen battery. This may cause an

explosion.

The batteries must be  kept clean. The covers

(if equipped) must be kept  on the cells. Use the

recommended cables, connections, and battery box

covers when the engine is operated.

Fire Extinguisher

Make sure that a fire extinguisher is  available. Be

familiar with the operation of the fire  extinguisher.

Inspect the fire extinguisher and  service the fire

extinguisher regularly. Obey the recommendations

on the instruction plate.

g00704059

Illustration 10

Lines, Tubes, and Hoses

Use caution when you are refueling an engine. Do

not smoke while you are refueling an engine. Do not

refuel an engine near open flames or sparks. Always

stop the engine before refueling.

Do not bend high-pressure  lines. Do not strike

high-pressure lines. Do not install any lines that are

bent or damaged. Do not clip any other items to the

high-pressure lines.

Repair any lines that are loose or damaged. Leaks

can cause fires. Consult your Perkins dealer or your

Perkins distributor for repair or for replacement parts.

Check lines, tubes, and hoses carefully. Do not use

your bare hand to check for leaks. Use a board or

cardboard to check for leaks. Tighten all connections

to the recommended torque.

Replace the parts if any of the following conditions

are present:

•  End fittings are damaged or leaking.

•  Outer coverings are chafed or cut.

•  Wires are exposed.

•  Outer coverings are ballooning.

•  Flexible parts of the hoses are kinked.

•  Outer covers have embedded armoring.

•  End fittings are displaced.

g00704135

Illustration 11

Gases from a battery can explode. Keep any open

flames or sparks away from the top of a battery. Do

not smoke in battery charging areas.

Never check the battery charge by placing a metal

object across the terminal posts. Use a voltmeter or

a hydrometer.

Make sure that all clamps, guards, and heat shields

are installed correctly. During engine operation, this

will help to prevent vibration, rubbing against other

parts, and excessive heat.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

SEBU8455

13

Safety Section

Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention

i02143194

High-pressure oil within the high-pressure oil line is

used in order to create high-pressure fuel in the unit

injectors.

Crushing Prevention  and

Cutting Prevention

Support the component correctly when work beneath

the component is performed.

Unless other maintenance instructions are provided,

never attempt adjustments while  the engine is

running.

Stay clear of all rotating  parts and of all moving

parts. Leave the guards in place until maintenance

is performed. After the maintenance is performed,

reinstall the guards.

Keep objects away from moving fan blades. The fan

blades will throw objects or cut objects.

When objects are struck, wear protective glasses in

order to avoid injury to the eyes.

Chips or other debris may fly off objects when objects

are struck. Before objects are struck, ensure that no

one will be injured by flying debris.

i04016709

Mounting and Dismounting

Do not  climb on the  engine or the  engine

aftertreatment. The engine and aftertreatment have

not been designed with mounting or dismounting

locations.

Refer to the OEM for the location of foot and hand

holds for your specific application.

i04553464

High Pressure Oil Lines

Personal  injury  can  result from  oil  under  high

pressure.

DO NOT allow high pressure oil to contact skin.

Wear   appropriate  protective   equipment   while

working with high pressure oil systems.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

14

SEBU8455

Safety Section

Before Starting Engine

g02722895

Illustration 12

(1) High-pressure oil line

(2) High-pressure oil pump

The high-pressure oil line is the line that is between

the high-pressure oil pump and the high-pressure oil

manifold within the cylinder head. This high-pressure

line is different from fuel lines on other fuel systems.

•  Do not operate the engine with a leak.  Refer to

Disassembly and Assembly, “High-Pressure Oil

Line- Remove and Install”.

•  If the high-pressure oil line is torqued  correctly,

and the high-pressure  oil line is leaking the

high-pressure oil line must be replaced.

These differences are because of the following items:

•  The high-pressure oil line is constantly charged

with high pressure.

•  Do not attach any other item to the high-pressure

oil line.

•  The internal pressure of the high-pressure oil line

is higher than other types of fuel systems.

i02813489

Do not step on the high-pressure  oil line. Do not

deflect the high-pressure oil line.  Do not bend or

strike the high-pressure oil  line. Deformation or

damage of the high-pressure oil line may cause a

point of weakness and potential failure.

Before Starting Engine

Before the initial start-up of an engine that is new,

serviced or repaired, make provision  to shut the

engine off, in order to stop an overspeed. This may

be accomplished by shutting off the air and/or fuel

supply to the engine.

Do not check the  high-pressure oil line with the

engine or the starting motor in operation. After the

engine has stopped, wait 10 minutes in order to allow

the pressure to be purged from the high-pressure oil

line, before any service or repair is performed.

Overspeed shutdown should occur automatically for

engines that are controlled electronically. If automatic

shutdown does not occur, press the emergency stop

button in order to cut the fuel and/or air to the engine.

Visually inspect the high-pressure oil line before the

engine is started. This inspection should be each day.

If you inspect the engine in operation, always use

the proper inspection procedure in order to  avoid

a fluid penetration hazard. Refer to Operation and

Maintenance Manual, “General hazard Information”.

Inspect the engine for potential hazards.

Before starting the engine, ensure that no one is on,

underneath, or close to the engine. Ensure that the

area is free of personnel.

•  Inspect the high-pressure oil line  for damage,

deformation, a nick, a cut, a crease, or a dent.

If equipped, ensure that the lighting system for the

engine is suitable for the conditions. Ensure that all

lights work correctly, if equipped.

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SEBU8455

15

Safety Section

Engine Starting

All protective guards and all protective covers must

be installed if the engine must be started  in order

to perform service procedures. To help prevent an

accident that is caused by parts in  rotation, work

around the parts carefully.

To ensure that the jacket water heater (if equipped)

is working correctly, check the water temperature

gauge and/or the oil temperature gauge during the

heater operation.

Engine exhaust contains products of combustion

which can be harmful to your health. Always start the

engine and operate the engine in a well ventilated

area. If the engine is started in an  enclosed area,

vent the engine exhaust to the outside.

Do not bypass the automatic shutoff circuits. Do not

disable the automatic shutoff circuits. The circuits are

provided in order to help prevent personal injury. The

circuits are also provided in order to  help prevent

engine damage.

Note: The engine may be equipped with a device for

cold starting. If the engine will be operated in very

cold conditions, then an extra cold starting aid may

be required. Normally, the engine will be equipped

with the correct type of starting aid for your region

of operation.

See the  Service Manual for repairs  and for

adjustments.

i02583384

Engine Starting

i02234873

Engine Stopping

Stop the engine according  to the procedure in

the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine

Stopping (Operation Section)” in  order to avoid

overheating of the engine and accelerated wear of

the engine components.

Use the Emergency Stop Button (if equipped) ONLY

in an emergency situation. Do not use the Emergency

Stop Button for normal engine stopping.  After an

emergency stop, DO NOT start the engine until the

problem that caused the emergency stop has been

corrected.

Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as

ether. Such use could  result in an explosion and

personal injury.

If a warning tag is attached to the engine start switch

or to the controls DO NOT start the engine or move

the controls. Consult with the person that attached

the warning tag before the engine is started.

Stop the engine if an overspeed condition occurs

during the initial start-up of a new engine or an engine

that has been overhauled.

To stop an electronically controlled engine, cut the

power to the engine and/or shutting off the air supply

to the engine.

All protective guards and all protective covers must

be installed if the engine must be started  in order

to perform service procedures. To help prevent an

accident that is caused by parts  in rotation, work

around the parts carefully.

i04259711

Electrical System

Start the engine from the operator's compartment or

from the engine start switch.

Always start the engine according to the procedure

that is described in the Operation and Maintenance

Manual, “Engine Starting” topic in  the Operation

Section. Knowing the correct procedure will help to

prevent major damage to the engine components.

Knowing the procedure will also  help to prevent

personal injury.

Never disconnect any charging unit circuit or battery

circuit cable from the battery when the charging unit

is operating. A spark can cause  the combustible

gases that are produced by some batteries to ignite.

To help prevent sparks from igniting  combustible

gases that are produced by  some batteries, the

negative “−” cable should be connected last  from

the external power source to the primary position for

grounding.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

16

SEBU8455

Safety Section

Engine Electronics

,

Check the electrical  wires daily for wires that

are loose or frayed.  Tighten all loose electrical

connections before the engine is started. Repair all

frayed electrical wires before the engine is started.

See the Operation and Maintenance  Manual for

specific starting instructions.

The power supply connections  and the ground

connections for the engine electronics should always

be from the isolator to the battery.

i04259752

Engine Electronics

Grounding Practices

Tampering with the electronic system installation

or the OEM  wiring installation can be dangerous

and could result in personal injury or death and/or

engine damage.

This engine has a comprehensive, programmable

Engine Monitoring System. The Engine  Control

Module (ECM) has the ability to monitor the engine

operating conditions. If any of the engine parameters

extend outside an allowable range, the  ECM will

initiate an immediate action.

The following actions  are available for engine

monitoring control: WARNING, ACTION ALERT, and

SHUTDOWN.

Many of the parameters that are monitored by the

ECM can be programmed for the engine monitoring

functions. The following parameters can be monitored

as a part of the Engine Monitoring System:

g02430157

Illustration 13

Typical example

(1) Ground to battery

(2) Primary position for grounding

(3) Ground to engine block

(4) Ground to stating motor

•  Intake Manifold Air Pressure

•  Intake Manifold Temperature

•  Coolant Temperature

•  Engine Oil Pressure

•  Engine Oil Temperature

•  Crankshaft Position

•  Camshaft Position

Correct grounding for the engine electrical system

is necessary for optimum  engine performance

and reliability. Incorrect grounding  will result in

uncontrolled electrical circuit paths and in unreliable

electrical circuit paths.

Uncontrolled electrical circuit paths can  result in

damage to the crankshaft bearing journal surfaces

and to aluminum components.

Engines that are installed without engine-to-frame

ground straps can  be damaged by electrical

discharge.

•  Fuel Pressure

•  System Voltage

To ensure that the engine and the engine electrical

systems function correctly, an  engine-to-frame

ground strap with a direct path to the battery must be

used. This path may be provided by way of a direct

engine ground to the frame.

The Engine Monitoring package can vary for different

engine models and different engine applications.

However, the monitoring system and  the engine

monitoring control will be similar for all engines.

The connections for the grounds should be tight and

free of corrosion. The engine  alternator must be

grounded to the negative “-” battery terminal  with

a wire that is adequate to handle the full  charging

current of the alternator.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

SEBU8455

17

Product Information Section

General Information

Product Information

Section

General Information

Model View Illustrations

1600D Engine

i04260031

g02757356

Illustration 14

(1) Rear lifting eye

(2) Front lifting eye

(3) Alternator

(5) Belt tensioner

(6) Coolant pump

(7) Coolant intake connection

(8) Crankcase breather

(9) Oil cooler

(10) Oil filter

(11) Turbocharger

(12) NOx Reduction cooler

(4) Drive belt

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

18

SEBU8455

Product Information Section

General Information

g02430477

Illustration 15

(13) Valve mechanism cover

(14) Air cleaner

(15) Flywheel housing

(16) Flywheel

(17) Oil filler

(21) Secondary fuel filter

(22) Hand prime pump

(23) Primary fuel filter

(18) Oil drain plug

(19) Control module

(20) High-pressure oil pump

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

SEBU8455

19

Product Information Section

General Information

Coolant System for 1600D Engine

g02430617

Illustration 16

(1) Radiator filler cap

(5) Rear vent liner

(9) Fan guard

(2) Air to air charge cooler connection

(3) Coolant inlet connection

(4) Front vent line

(6) Coolant drain plug

(7) Coolant outlet connection

(8) Air to air charge cooler connection

(10) Fan

(11) Fan guard

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

20

SEBU8455

Product Information Section

General Information

1600A Engine

g02794993

Illustration 17

Typical example

Engine Specifications

i04261592

Product Description

Note: The front end of the engine is  opposite the

flywheel end of the engine. The  left and the right

sides of the engine are determined from the flywheel

end. The number 1 cylinder is the front cylinder.

The Perkins 1600 Series Industrial Engines has the

following characteristics.

•  In-line Six cylinder

•  Four stroke cycle

•  Turbocharged charge cooled

The 1600 series  engines can be divided  into

two different engine groups. The  1606A LBSFC

unregulated engine and the 1606D EU  stage 3A

compliant engine.

The 1606D engines will have NOx Reduction System

(NRS) installed.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

SEBU8455

21

Product Information Section

General Information

The diesel fuel is drawn from  the fuel tank into a

strainer and into a fuel pump. The fuel pump sends

the fuel into the main fuel filter. From the main fuel

filter the fuel is sent internally to the fuel injectors by

means of an internal fuel manifold. The fuel injectors

use engine lubricating oil  from a high-pressure

pump in order to increase the  injection pressure.

The injectors are controlled by the engine electronic

control module (ECM).

Aftermarket Products and Perkins

Engines

Perkins does not warrant the quality or performance

of non-Perkins fluids and filters.

g02433836

Illustration 18

Cylinder and valve location

When auxiliary devices, accessories, or consumables

(filters, additives, catalysts,) which are made by other

manufacturers are used on Perkins products, the

Perkins warranty is not affected simply because of

such use.

(A) Inlet valves

(B) Exhaust valves

Table 1

1600 Series Engine  Specifications

Operating Range (rpm)

Number of Cylinders

Bore

1500 to 1800

(1)

6 In-Line

However, failures that result from the installation

or use  of other manufacturers  devices,

accessories, or consumables are NOT Perkins

defects. Therefore, the defects are NOT covered

under the Perkins warranty.

116.6 mm sleeve diameter

146

Stroke

Power

298  to 315  kW

(400 to 422 hp  )

(2)

Aspiration

Turbocharged charge

cooled

Compression Ratio

Displacement

17.2 to  1

9.3 L

Firing Order

1-5-3-6-2-4

Counterclockwise

Rotation (flywheel end)

(1)  Depending upon application.

(2)  Gross power

The crankshaft has a seven main bearing journals, a

fractured split connecting rods is connected to each

crankshaft journal. The pistons have an off set axis

and made from a one piece steel construction. The

cylinder block has wet liners with a single seal. Four

bushing support the camshaft, and the camshaft is

driven by a drive gear. The camshaft operates the

over head valves. Each cylinder has two inlet valves

and, two exhaust valves.

The engine lubricating oil is supplied by a gerotor oil

pump. The engine has an oil cooler and a spin  on

oil filter.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

22

SEBU8455

Product Information Section

Product Identification Information

Product Identification

Table 4

Information

Number of  Cylinders

F

6

H

M

R

8

i04266129

Plate Locations and  Film

Locations

12

16

Perkins dealers and Perkins distributors require all of

these numbers in order to determine the components

that were included in the engine. This information

permits accurate identification of replacement part

numbers.

Perkins engines are identified by serial  numbers.

These numbers are shown on  the engine serial

number plate. Perkins distributors  need these

numbers in order to determine the components that

were included with the engine.  This information

permits accurate identification of replacement part

numbers.

Engine Identification

Perkins engines are identified by an engine serial

number.

A typical example of an engine serial number is

XGE F**** U00001W.

X _________________________________________Made in Stafford

G ____________________________________Application (Table 2)

E ________________________________Type of engine (Table 3)

F _________________________Number of cylinders (Table 4)

***** __________________________________Fixed build number

N __________________________________________Built in the USA

00001 ____________________________________Engine Number

W ____________________________________Year of Manufacture

Table 2

Application

G

Genset

Table 3

Type of  engine (Diesel)

A

B

D

E

F

TAG1

TAG2

TAG3

TAG4

TAG5

TAG6

H

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

SEBU8455

23

Product Information Section

Product Identification Information

Serial Number Plate (1)

g02435523

Illustration 19

Typical example

The engine serial number plate is located on right

side of the cylinder block above the engine oil filter.

g02435519

Illustration 20

Typical example

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

24

SEBU8455

Product Information Section

Product Identification Information

i04266330

Emissions Certification Film

The emission label for the 1600D engine is installed

on rear of the valve mechanism cover.

g02435679

Illustration 21

Typical example

The emission label for the 1600A engine is installed

on rear of the valve mechanism cover.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

SEBU8455

25

Product Information Section

Product Identification Information

g02834955

Illustration 22

i04266250

Reference Information

Information for the following items may be needed to

order parts. Locate the information for your engine.

Record the information in the appropriate  space.

Make a copy of  this list for a record.  Keep the

information for future reference.

Record for Reference

Engine Model  _______________________________________________

Engine Serial number  _____________________________________

Engine rpm  __________________________________________________

Fuel Strainer  ________________________________________________

Fuel Filter Element  ________________________________________

Lubrication Oil Filter  _______________________________________

Total Lubrication System Capacity  _____________________

Total Cooling System Capacity  _________________________

Air Cleaner Element  _______________________________________

Drive Belt  ____________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

26

SEBU8455

Operation Section

Lifting and Storage

Operation Section

Lifting and Storage

i04823376

Product Storage

Refer to Perkins Engine Company limited, Stafford

for information on engine storage.

i04655490

Product Lifting

There are three different levels of engine storage.

Level “A, B and C”.

Level “A ”

Level “A” will give protection for 12 month for diesel

engines and 12 month protection for gas engines.

This level is for engines that are transported  by a

container or a truck. Level “A” is for the transportation

of items that are within the United kingdom and within

Europe.

Level “B ”

This level is additional to level “A”.  Level “B ” will

give protection under normal  storage condition

from −15° to +55°C (5° to 99°F) and “90%” relative

humidity for 2 year. Level “B” is for the transportation

of items overseas.

g00103219

Illustration 23

NOTICE

Never bend the eyebolts and the brackets. Only load

the eyebolts and the brackets under tension. Remem-

ber that the capacity of an eyebolt is less as the angle

between the supporting members and  the object be-

comes less than 90 degrees.

Level “C ”

In order to protect the product to Level “C”, contact

Perkins Engines Company Limited Stafford.

When it  is necessary to  remove a component at  an

angle, only use a link bracket that is properly rated for

the weight.

Use a hoist to  remove heavy components. Use

an adjustable lifting beam  to lift the engine. All

supporting members (chains and cables) should be

parallel to each other. The chains and cables should

be perpendicular to the top of the object that is being

lifted.

Some removals require lifting the fixtures in order to

obtain proper balance and safety.

To remove the engine ONLY, use the lifting eyes that

are on the engine.

Lifting eyes are designed and installed for specific

engine arrangements. Alterations to the lifting eyes

and/or the engine make the lifting eyes and the lifting

fixtures obsolete. If alterations are made,  ensure

that proper lifting devices are provided. Consult your

Perkins dealer for information regarding fixtures for

proper engine lifting.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

SEBU8455

27

Operation Section

Features and Controls

Features and Controls

Alarms and Shutoffs

Engine Shutoffs

i04266369

Gauges and Indicators

i04266770

Your engine may not have the same gauges or all of

the gauges that are described. For more information

about the gauge package, see the OEM information.

Gauges provide indications of engine performance.

Ensure that the gauges are in good working order.

Determine the normal operating range by observing

the gauges over a period of time.

The shutoffs are electrically operated or mechanically

operated. The electrically operated shutoffs  are

controlled by the ECM.

Noticeable changes in gauge  readings indicate

potential gauge or engine problems. Problems may

also be indicated by gauge readings that  change

even if the  readings are within specifications.

Determine and correct the cause of any significant

change in the  readings. Consult your Perkins

distributor for assistance.

Shutoffs are set at critical levels  for the following

items:

•  Operating temperature

•  Operating pressure

•  Operating level

NOTICE

If no  oil pressure  is  indicated, STOP  the engine.  If

maximum  coolant temperature  is  exceeded,  STOP

the engine. Engine damage can result.

The particular shutoff may need to be reset before

the engine will start.

NOTICE

Always determine the cause of the engine shutdown.

Make necessary  repairs before attempting to  restart

the engine.

Engine Oil Pressure  – The engine oil

pressure at idle is 103 kPa (15 psi).

•  The 1600A oil pressure at  full load can range

between 340 to 360 kPa (49 to 52 psi)

Be familiar with the following items:

•  Types and locations of the shutoff

•  The 1600D oil pressure at full load  operates at

370 kPa (53 psi)

•  Conditions which cause each shutoff to function

Jacket Water Coolant Temperature  –

Typical water temperature into the engine

is 88° to 109°C (190° to 228°F).  Higher

temperatures may occur under certain conditions.

The water temperature reading may vary according

to load. The reading should never exceed 109°  C

(228° F).

•  The resetting procedure that is required to restart

the engine

Engine Alarms

The alarms are electrically operated. The operation

of the alarms is controlled by the ECM.

1.  A high water temperature switch is installed in the

cooling system.

The alarm is operated by a sensor or by  a switch.

When the sensor or the switch is activated, a signal

is sent to the ECM.  An event code is created by

the ECM. The ECM will send  a signal in order to

illuminate the lamp.

Tachometer  – This gauge indicates engine

speed (rpm).

Your engine may be equipped  with the following

sensors or switches:

Ammeter  – This gauge indicates the

amount of charge or  discharge in the

battery charging circuit. Operation of the

indicator should be to the right side of “0” (zero).

•  Engine oil temperature sensor

•  Engine oil pressure sensor

•  Engine coolant temperature sensor

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

28

SEBU8455

Operation Section

Features and Controls

Programmable Options  and

Systems Operation

Service Hour Meter – The gauge indicates

operating hours of the engine.

i04266490

If the  Warning/Derate/Shutdown mode  has been

selected  and   the  warning   indicator  activates,

bring the engine to a stop whenever possible. De-

pending on  the  application, special  precautions

should be taken to avoid personal injury.

Monitoring System

The engine can be programmed to  the following

modes:

If the Shutdown mode has been selected  and the

warning indicator activates, engine shutdown may

take as little as 20 seconds from the time the warn-

ing indicator  is activated.  Depending on  the ap-

plication, special precautions should  be taken to

avoid personal injury. The engine can be restarted

following shutdown for emergency maneuvers, if

necessary.

“Warning”

The orange “Warning” lamp will turn “ON” and the

warning signal is activated continuously in order to

alert the operator that one or  more of the engine

parameters is not within normal operating range.

“Derate”

NOTICE

The  Engine Monitoring  System  is not  a  guarantee

against  catastrophic   failures.  Programmed  delays

and derate schedules are designed to minimize false

alarms and provide  time for the operator  to stop the

engine.

The engine will be derated if the  engine exceeds

preset operational limits. The  engine derate is

achieved by restricting the amount of  fuel that is

available for each injection.  The amount of this

reduction of fuel is dependent on the severity of the

fault that has caused the engine derate, typically up

to a limit of 50%. This reduction in fuel results in a

predetermined reduction in engine power.

The following parameters are monitored:

•  Coolant temperature

“Shutdown”

•  Intake manifold air temperature

•  Intake manifold air pressure

•  Oil pressure

The orange warning will  turn “ON” and the red

shutdown lamp will also turn “ON”.

A shutdown of the engine may occur in as little as

3 seconds. The engine can  be restarted after a

shutdown for use in an emergency. However,  the

cause of the initial shutdown  may still exist. The

engine may shut down again in as little as 3 seconds.

•  Oil temperature

•  Fuel pressure

•  Engine speed/timing

For more information or  assistance for repairs,

consult your Perkins distributor  or your Perkins

dealer.

•  Fuel temperature

•  Atmospheric pressure (Barometric pressure)

•  Injection control pressure

•  Water in fuel switch

i04266532

Sensors and  Electrical

Components

The illustrations within the section show the typical

location of the sensors. Specific engines may appear

different from the illustration due to differences  in

applications.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

SEBU8455

29

Operation Section

Features and Controls

g02435937

Illustration 24

(1) Valve for the  NOx Reduction System

(NRS)

(2) Manifold absolute pressure sensor

(3) Manifold air temperature sensor

(4) Water in fuel sensor

(5) Engine oil temperature sensor

(6) Injection pressure regulator

(7) Engine fuel pressure sensor

(8) Air inlet heater

(10) Crankshaft position sensor

(11) Coolant jacket heater

(12) Engine oil pressure sensor

(13) Starting motor

(9) Control Module

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

30

SEBU8455

Operation Section

Features and Controls

g02731387

Illustration 25

(14) Injection control  pressure sensor

(Internal)

(15) Exhaust back pressure sensor

(16) Engine coolant temperature sensor

(17) Camshaft position sensor

(18) Alternator

Alternator has been shown separately for clarity.

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SEBU8455

31

Operation Section

Features and Controls

g02740697

Illustration 26

(19) Connector and seal

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

32

SEBU8455

Operation Section

Features and Controls

g02732035

Illustration 27

(1) Valve for the  NOx Reduction System

(NRS)

(2) Manifold absolute pressure sensor

(3) Manifold air temperature sensor

(4) Water in fuel sensor

(5) Engine oil temperature sensor

(6) Injection pressure regulator

(7) Engine fuel pressure sensor

(8) Air inlet heater

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

SEBU8455

33

Operation Section

Features and Controls

g02732036

Illustration 28

(9) Control module

(A) Driver for the NRS valve

(B) Injection Drive Module (IDM)

(C) High current relay

(D) Electronic Control Module (ECM)

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

34

SEBU8455

Operation Section

Features and Controls

g02732039

Illustration 29

(10) Crankshaft position sensor

(11) Coolant jacket heater

(12) Engine oil pressure sensor

(13) Starting motor

(E) Solenoid

(F) Relay

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

SEBU8455

35

Operation Section

Features and Controls

g02732040

Illustration 30

(14) Injection control pressure sensor

(15) Exhaust back pressure sensor

(16) Coolant temperature sensor

(17) Camshaft position sensor

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

36

SEBU8455

Operation Section

Features and Controls

g02740857

Illustration 31

Item 18 alternator not  shown.

(19) Connector and seal

(G) Injection control pressure connection

(H) Connector for injectors 1 and injector 2

(I) Connector for injectors 3 and injector 4

(J) Connector for injectors 5 and injector 6

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SEBU8455

37

Operation Section

Features and Controls

Wiring Harness

g02740876

Illustration 32

(1) Coolant temperature

(2) Exhaust back pressure

(3) NRS

(4) Injection control

(5) Injectors 1 and 2

(6) Water in fuel

(7) Inlet air temperature

(8) Manifold absolute pressure

(9) Inlet heater terminal

(10) Injectors 3 and 4

(11) Injectors 5 and 6

(12) Plug for inlet heater

(13) Relay

(14) Crankshaft position

(15) Injector drive connections

(16) ECM

(17) NRS drive

(18) Customer connection

(19) Low-pressure fuel

(20) Engine oil pressure

(21) Injection pressure regulator

(22) Oil temperature

(23) Camshaft position connection

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

38

SEBU8455

Operation Section

Engine Diagnostics

Engine Diagnostics

i02651197

Engine Operation with Active

Diagnostic Codes

i02784187

Self-Diagnostics

If a diagnostic lamp illuminates during normal engine

operation, the system has identified a situation that is

not within the specification. Use the electronic service

tool to check the active diagnostic codes.

The electronic  control module has  some

self-diagnostic ability. When an electronic problem

with an input or an output is detected, a diagnostic

code is generated. This indicates the specific problem

with the circuitry.

The active diagnostic code should be investigated.

The cause of the problem should be corrected as

soon as possible. If the cause of the active diagnostic

code is repaired  and there is only one  active

diagnostic code, the diagnostic lamp will turn off.

A diagnostic code which represents a problem that

currently exists is called an active code.

A diagnostic code that is stored in memory is called

a logged code. Always service active codes prior to

servicing logged codes. Logged codes may indicate

intermittent problems.

Operation of the engine and  performance of the

engine can be limited  as a result of the  active

diagnostic code that is generated. Acceleration rates

may be significantly slower and power outputs may

be automatically reduced. Refer to Troubleshooting

, “Troubleshooting with a Diagnostic Code” for more

information on the relationship between each active

diagnostic code and the possible effect on engine

performance.

Logged codes may not  indicate that a repair is

needed. The problems may have been repaired since

the logging of the code. Logged codes may be helpful

to troubleshoot intermittent problems.

i04801080

i02784585

Engine Operation  with

Fault Logging

Intermittent Diagnostic Codes

The system provides the capability of Fault Logging.

When the Electronic  Control Module (ECM)

generates an active diagnostic code, the code will

be logged in the memory of the ECM. The Perkins

electronic service tool can retrieve codes that have

been logged. The codes that have been logged can

be cleared with the Perkins electronic service tool.

If a diagnostic lamp illuminates during normal engine

operation and the diagnostic lamp shuts OFF,  an

intermittent fault may have occurred. If a fault has

occurred, the fault will be logged into the memory of

the Electronic Control Module (ECM).

In most cases, it is not necessary to stop the engine

because of an intermittent  code. However, the

operator should retrieve the  logged fault codes

and the operator should reference the appropriate

information in order to identify the nature of the fault.

The operator should log any observation that could

have caused the lamp to light.

•  Low power

•  Limits of the engine speed

•  Excessive smoke, etc

This information can be useful to help troubleshoot

the situation. The information can also be used for

future reference. For more information on diagnostic

codes, refer to the Troubleshooting guide  for this

engine.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

SEBU8455

39

Operation Section

Engine Starting

Engine Starting

i02815193

Cold Weather Starting

i04268175

Before Starting Engine

Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as

ether. Such use could  result in an explosion and

personal injury.

Before the engine is started, perform the  required

daily maintenance  and any other  periodic

maintenance that is due. Refer  to the Operation

and Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance Interval

Schedule” for more information.

The engine will start at  a temperature of −10 °C

(14 °F). The ability to start at temperatures  below

10 °C (50 °F) will improve by the use of a  cylinder

block coolant heater or a device which  heats the

crankcase oil. This will help to reduce white smoke

and misfires when the  engine is started in cold

weather.

•   Open the fuel supply valve (if equipped).

NOTICE

All valves in the fuel return  line must be open before

and during engine operation to help prevent high fuel

pressure. High fuel pressure may cause filter housing

failure or other damage.

If the engine has not been run for several weeks, fuel

may have drained. Air may have moved into the filter

housing. Also, when fuel filters have been changed,

some air will be left in  the filter housing. Refer to

Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fuel System -

Prime” in order to remove air from the fuel system.

If the engine has not been started for several weeks,

fuel may have drained from  the fuel system. Air

may have entered the filter housing. Also, when fuel

filters have been changed, some air pockets will be

trapped in the engine. In these instances, prime the

fuel system. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance

Manual, “Fuel System - Prime” for more information

on priming the fuel system.

Use the procedure that follows  for cold weather

starting.

NOTICE

Do not  engage the  starting motor  when  flywheel is

turning. Do not start the engine under load.

If the engine fails  to start within 30 seconds, release

the starter switch or button and wait thirty seconds to

allow the  starting motor to cool  before attempting to

start the engine again.

Engine exhaust contains products of combustion

which may be harmful to your health. Always start

and operate  the engine  in a well  ventilated area

and, if in an enclosed area, vent the exhaust to the

outside.

1.  If equipped, press the start button. If equipped,

turn the keyswitch to the START position in order

to engage the electric starting motor and crank

the engine.

•  Do not start the engine or move any of the controls

if there is a “DO NOT OPERATE” warning tag or

similar warning tag attached to the start switch or

to the controls.

2.  Repeat step 1 three times if the engine fails to

•  Reset all of the shutoffs or alarm components (if

equipped).

start.

3.  If the engine fails to start, investigate the problem.

Use the Perkins electronic service tool. A system

fault may be indicated after the engine is started. If

this occurs the ECM has detected a problem with

the system. Investigate the cause of the problem.

Use the Perkins electronic service tool.

•  Ensure that any equipment that is driven  by the

engine has been disengaged from the  engine.

Minimize electrical loads or remove any electrical

loads.

•  Ensure that the coolant level is correct.

•  Ensure that the engine oil level is correct.

Note: Oil pressure should rise within 15  seconds

after the engine starts. The electronic engine controls

monitor the oil pressure. The electronic controls will

stop the engine if the oil pressure is below normal.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

40

SEBU8455

Operation Section

Engine Starting

4.  Operate the engine at no load until all the coolant

temperature starts to rise. Check  the gauges

during the warm-up period.

i04268176

Starting the Engine

Note: The oil pressures and fuel pressures should

be in the normal range on the instrument panel. Do

not apply a load to the engine until the oil pressure

gauge indicates at least normal pressure. Inspect the

engine for leaks and/or unusual noises.

Note: Do not adjust the engine speed control during

start-up. The electronic control module (ECM) will

control the engine speed during start-up.

Starting the Engine

Note: After the ECM has completed the cold mode,

cold mode cannot be enabled again until the ECM is

switched OFF.

1.  Disengage any equipment that is driven by the

engine.

Note: Do not attempt to restart the engine until the

engine has completely stopped.

2.  Turn the keyswitch to the ON position and wait for

the wait to stat lamp to go off.

Note: The air inlet  heat will be required in  low

ambient temperatures. The ECM will decide if the air

heater element will be required to warn the intake air

in order to start the engine.

3.  Turn the keyswitch to  the START position.

Release the keyswitch when the engine starts.

The keyswitch will return to the ON position.

NOTICE

Do not  engage the  starting motor  when  flywheel is

turning. Do not start the engine under load.

If the engine fails  to start within 30 seconds, release

the starter  switch or button  and wait two  minutes to

allow the  starting motor to cool  before attempting to

start the engine again.

4.  With the engine in  operation check the oil

pressure. Oil pressure should be 103 kPa (15 psi)

within seconds of engine operation, if oil pressure

is incorrect, stop the  engine and investigate

immediately. If the engine cannot reach minimum

oil pressure 276 kPa (40 psi)  or other warning

are activated, stop the engine  and investigate

immediately.

5.  If the engine fails to start, repeat steps 2 to step 3.

6.  If the engine fails to start after three attempts,

determine the cause.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

SEBU8455

41

Operation Section

Engine Starting

i02428473

Starting with  Jump Start

Cables

Do not use jump start cables  in order to start the

engine. Charge the batteries or replace the batteries.

Refer to Operation and  Maintenance Manual,

“Battery - Replace”.

i01646248

After Starting Engine

Note: In temperatures from 0 to 60°C (32 to 140°F),

the warm-up time is approximately three minutes. In

temperatures below 0°C (32°F), additional warm-up

time may be required.

Note: Ensure that the self test  for the monitoring

system (if equipped) is completed before operating

the engine under load.

When the engine idles during warm-up, observe the

following conditions:

•  Check for any fluid or for any air leaks at idle rpm

and at one-half full rpm (no load on the  engine)

before operating the engine under load. This is not

possible in some applications.

•  Operate the engine at low idle until  all systems

achieve operating temperatures. Check all gauges

during the warm-up period.

Note: Gauge readings should be  observed and

the data should be recorded frequently  while the

engine is operating. Comparing the data over time

will help to determine  normal readings for each

gauge. Comparing data over time  will also help

detect abnormal operating developments. Significant

changes in the readings should be investigated.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

42

SEBU8455

Operation Section

Engine Operation

Engine Operation

i02583385

Fuel Conservation Practices

i02578030

Engine Operation

The efficiency of the  engine can affect the fuel

economy. Perkins design  and technology in

manufacturing provides maximum fuel efficiency in

all applications. Follow the recommended procedures

in order to attain optimum performance for the life

of the engine.

Correct operation and maintenance are key factors

in obtaining the maximum  life and economy of

the engine. If the directions in  the Operation and

Maintenance Manual are followed, costs can  be

minimized and engine service life can be maximized.

•  Avoid spilling fuel.

Gauge readings should be observed and the data

should be recorded frequently  while the engine

is operating. Comparing the  data over time will

help to determine normal readings for each gauge.

Comparing data over time  will also he, lp detect

abnormal operating developments. Significant

changes in the readings should be investigated.

Fuel expands when the fuel is warmed up. The fuel

may overflow from the fuel tank. Inspect fuel lines for

leaks. Repair the fuel lines, as needed.

•  Be aware of the properties of the different fuels.

Use only the recommended fuels.

•  Avoid unnecessary operation at no load.

Shut off the engine instead of operating the engine

at no load for long periods of time.

•  Observe the service indicator for the air cleaner

frequently, if equipped. Keep  the air cleaner

elements clean.

•  Maintain a good electrical system.

One bad battery cell will overwork the alternator. This

will consume excess power and excess fuel.

•  Ensure that the belts are properly adjusted. The

belts should be in good condition.

•  Ensure that all of the connections of the hoses are

tight. The connections should not leak.

•  Ensure that the driven  equipment is in good

working order.

•  Cold engines consume excess fuel. Keep cooling

system components clean  and keep cooling

system components in good repair. Never operate

the engine without water temperature regulators.

All of these items will  help maintain operating

temperatures.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

SEBU8455

43

Operation Section

Cold Weather Operation

Cold Weather Operation

Personal  injury  or property  damage  can  result

from alcohol or starting fluids.

i04564559

Cold Weather Operation

Alcohol or starting fluids are highly flammable and

toxic and if improperly stored could result in injury

or property damage.

Perkins Diesel Engines can operate effectively in

cold weather. During cold weather, the starting and

the operation of the diesel engine is dependent on

the following items:

Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as

ether. Such use could  result in an explosion and

personal injury.

•  The type of fuel that is used

•  The viscosity of the engine oil

•  Optional Cold starting aid

•  Battery condition

Viscosity of the Engine Lubrication

Oil

Correct engine oil viscosity is essential. Oil viscosity

affects the amount  of torque that  is needed

to crank the  engine. Refer to Operation  and

Maintenance Manual, “Fluid Recommendations” for

the recommended viscosity of oil.

The operation and maintenance of  an engine in

freezing temperatures is complex , because of the

following conditions:

•  Weather conditions

•  Engine applications

Recommendations for the Coolant

Provide cooling system protection for  the lowest

expected outside temperature. Refer to this Operation

and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid Recommendations”

for the recommended coolant mixture.

Recommendations from your Perkins distributor are

based on past proven practices. The information that

is contained in this section provides guidelines for

cold-weather operation.

In cold weather, check the  coolant often for the

correct glycol concentration in  order to ensure

adequate freeze protection.

Hints for Cold Weather Operation

•  If the engine will start, operate the engine until a

minimum operating temperature of 81 °C (177.8 °F)

is achieved. Achieving operating temperature will

help prevent the intake valves and exhaust valves

from sticking.

Coolant Jacket Heaters

If installed, the coolant jacket heater heats the engine

jacket coolant that surrounds the cylinder block. This

added heat provides the following function:

•  The cooling system and the lubrication  system

for the engine do not lose heat immediately upon

shutdown. This means that an engine can be shut

down for a time and the engine can still have the

ability to start readily.

•  Startability is improved.

An electric heater can be activated once the engine

is stopped. An effective heater is typically a  1250

W at 120 V. If your engine  is to operate in a cold

environment, consult your Perkins distributor for more

information. An oil pan heater may also be required.

•  Install the correct specification of engine lubricant

before the beginning of cold weather.

•  Check all rubber parts (hoses, drive belts,) weekly.

•  Check all electrical wiring and connections for any

fraying or damaged insulation.

•  Keep all batteries fully charged and warm.

•  Check the air cleaners and the air intake daily.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

44

SEBU8455

Operation Section

Cold Weather Operation

i02576035

•  A lower energy per unit volume of fuel

Fuel and the Effect from Cold

Weather

Note: Group 3 fuels reduce the life of the engine. The

use of Group 3 fuels is not covered by the Perkins

warranty.

Group 3 fuels include Low Temperature Fuels and

Aviation Kerosene Fuels.

Note: Only use grades of fuel that are recommended

by Perkins. Refer to this Operation and Maintenance

Manual, “Fluid Recommendations”.

Special fuels include Biofuel.

The cloud point is a temperature  that allows wax

crystals to form in the fuel. These crystals can cause

the fuel filters to plug.

The following fuels can be  used in this series of

engine.

•  Group 1

The pour point is the temperature when diesel fuel

will thicken. The diesel fuel becomes more resistant

to flow through fuel lines, fuel filters,and fuel pumps.

•  Group 2

•  Group 3

Be aware of  these facts when  diesel fuel is

purchased. Consider the average  ambient air

temperature for the engine's application. Engines that

are fueled in one climate may not operate well if the

engines are moved to another climate. Problems can

result due to changes in temperature.

•  Special Fuels

Perkins prefer only Group 1 and Group 2 fuels for

use in this series of engines.

Group 1 fuels are the preferred Group of Fuels for

general use by Perkins. Group 1  fuels maximize

engine life and engine performance. Group 1 fuels

are usually less  available than Group 2 fuels.

Frequently, Group 1 fuels are not available in colder

climates during the winter.

Before troubleshooting for low power  or for poor

performance in the winter, check the fuel for waxing.

Low temperature fuels may be available for engine

operation at temperatures below 0 °C (32 °F). These

fuels limit the formation of  wax in the fuel at low

temperatures.

Note: Group 2 fuels must have a  maximum wear

scar of 650 micrometers (HFRR to ISO 12156-1).

For more information on cold weather operation, refer

to the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Cold

Weather Operation and Fuel Related Components in

Cold Weather”.

Group 2 fuels are considered acceptable for issues

of warranty. This group of fuels may reduce the life

of the engine, the engine's maximum power, and the

engine's fuel efficiency.

When Group 2 diesel fuels are used the  following

components provide a means of minimizing problems

in cold weather:

•  Glow plugs (if equipped)

•  Engine coolant heaters, which may be an OEM

option

•  Fuel heaters, which may be an OEM option

•  Fuel line insulation, which may be an OEM option

There are three major differences between Group

1 fuels and Group 2 fuels. Group 1 fuels  have the

following different characteristics to Group 2 fuels.

•  A lower cloud point

•  A lower pour point

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

SEBU8455

45

Operation Section

Cold Weather Operation

i04268370

Fuel Related Components in

Cold Weather

Fuel Tanks

Condensation can form in partially filled fuel tanks.

Top off the fuel tanks after you operate the engine.

Fuel tanks should contain some provision for draining

water and sediment from the bottom of the  tanks.

Some fuel tanks use supply pipes that allow water

and sediment to settle below  the end of the fuel

supply pipe.

Some fuel tanks use  supply lines that take fuel

directly from the bottom of the tank. If the engine is

equipped with this system, regular maintenance of

the fuel system filter is important.

Drain the water and sediment from any fuel storage

tank at the following intervals: weekly, oil changes,

and refueling of the fuel tank. This draining will help

prevent water and/or sediment from being pumped

from the fuel storage tank and into the engine fuel

tank.

Fuel Filter

A strainer and fuel filter  is installed between the

fuel tank and the electronic fuel injectors. After you

change the fuel filter, always prime the fuel system

in order to remove air bubbles from the fuel system.

Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual in

the Maintenance Section for more information on

priming the fuel system.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

46

SEBU8455

Operation Section

Engine Stopping

Engine Stopping

i02583411

After Stopping Engine

i04268255

Stopping the Engine

Note: Before you check the engine oil, do not operate

the engine for at least 10 minutes in order to allow

the engine oil to return to the oil pan.

NOTICE

•  Check the crankcase oil level. Maintain the oil level

between the “LOW” mark and the “HIGH” mark on

the oil level gauge.

Stopping  the engine  immediately  after it  has  been

working under load, can result in overheating and ac-

celerated wear of the engine components.

Note: Only use  oil that is  recommended in

this Operation and Maintenance Manual,  “Fluid

Recommendations”. Failure to use the recommended

oil may result in engine damage.

Avoid accelerating the engine prior to shutting it down.

Avoiding  hot  engine  shutdowns  will  maximize  tur-

bocharger shaft and bearing life.

•  If necessary, perform minor adjustments. Repair

any leaks and tighten any loose bolts.

Note: Individual applications will  have different

control systems. Ensure that the shutoff procedures

are understood. Use the following general guidelines

in order to stop the engine.

•  Note the service hour meter  reading. Perform

the maintenance that is  in the Operation and

Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance Interval

Schedule”.

1.  Remove the load from the engine.  Allow the

engine to run under  no load conditions for 5

minutes in order to cool the engine.

•  Fill the  fuel tank in order  to help prevent

accumulation of moisture in the fuel. Do not overfill

the fuel tank.

2.  Stop the engine after the  cool down period

according to the shutoff system on the engine and

turn the ignition keyswitch to the OFF position.

If necessary, refer to the  instructions that are

provided by the OEM.

•  Allow the engine to cool. Check the coolant level.

Maintain the cooling system at 13 mm (0.5 inch)

from the bottom of the pipe for filling.

Note: Only use coolant that  is recommended in

this Operation and Maintenance Manual,  “Fluid

Recommendations”. Failure to use the recommended

oil may result in engine damage.

i01903586

Emergency Stopping

•  If freezing temperatures are  expected, check

the coolant for proper antifreeze protection. The

cooling system must be protected against freezing

to the lowest expected outside temperature. Add

the proper coolant/water mixture, if necessary.

NOTICE

Emergency shutoff controls are for EMERGENCY use

ONLY. DO  NOT  use emergency  shutoff devices  or

controls for normal stopping procedure.

•  Perform all required periodic maintenance on all

driven equipment. This maintenance is outlined in

the instructions from the OEM.

The OEM may have equipped the application with

an emergency stop button. For more  information

about the emergency stop button, refer to the OEM

information.

Ensure that any components for the external system

that support the engine operation are secured after

the engine is stopped.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

SEBU8455

47

Maintenance Section

Refill Capacities

Maintenance Section

i04268521

Fluid Recommendations

Refill Capacities

•  Glossary

i04268391

•  ISO International Standards Organization

•  ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials

Refill Capacities

•  HFRR High Frequency Reciprocating  Rig for

Lubricity testing of diesel fuels

Lubrication System

•  FAME Fatty Acid Methyl Esters

•  CFR Co-ordinating Fuel Research

•  LSD Low Sulfur Diesel

The refill capacities  for the engine crankcase

reflect the approximate capacity of the crankcase

or sump plus standard oil filters. Auxiliary  oil filter

systems will require additional oil. Refer to the OEM

specifications for the capacity of the auxiliary oil filter.

Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,

“Maintenance Section” for more  information on

Lubricant Specifications.

•  RME Rape Methyl Ester

•  SME Soy Methyl Ester

Table 5

•  EPA Environmental Protection Agency  of the

United States

Engine

Refill Capacities

Compartment or System

Crankcase Oil Sump

Maximum

General Information

(1)

35.96 L (7.9Imp gal)

NOTICE

(1)  These values are the approximate capacities for the crankcase

Every attempt is made to provide accurate, up-to-date

information. By use  of this document you agree  that

Perkins Engines Company Limited is not responsible

for errors or omissions.

oil sump which includes the standard factory installed oil filters.

Engines with auxiliary oil filters will require additional oil. Refer

to the OEM specifications for the capacity of the  auxiliary oil

filter.

Cooling System

NOTICE

These recommendations are subject to change  with-

out notice.  Contact your local  Perkins distributor  for

the most up-to-date recommendations.

Refer to the OEM specifications  for the External

System capacity. This capacity information will be

needed in order to determine the amount of coolant

that is required for the Total Cooling System.

Table 6

Diesel Fuel Requirements

Engine

Refill Capacities

Perkins is not in a position to continuously evaluate

and monitor all  worldwide distillate diesel fuel

specifications that are published by governments and

technological societies.

Compartment or  System

11.8  L

1600A Engine Only

(2.6 Imp gal)

Table 7 provides a known reliable baseline in order

to judge the expected performance of distillate diesel

fuels that are derived from conventional sources.

30.9  L

1600A Total System

(6.8 Imp gal)

13.2  L

1600D Engine Only

(2.9 Imp gal)

Satisfactory engine performance is dependent on

the use of a good quality fuel.  The use of a good

quality fuel will give the following results: long engine

life and acceptable exhaust emissions levels. The

fuel must meet the minimum requirements that are

stated in table 7.

32.3  L

1600D Total System

(7.1 Imp gal)

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE

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