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珀金斯Perkins1600发动机故障维修排除资料手册


详细描述:

Troubleshooting

1600 Series Industrial Engine

Table of Contents

Oil Pressure Is Low..................... .................... 89

Power Is IntermittentlyLow or Power Cutout Is

Intermittent.......................... .......................... 93

Valve Lash Is Excessive................. ................ 96

TroubleshootingSection

Electronic Troubleshooting

Troubleshootingwith a Diagnostic Code

Diagnostic Trouble Codes ............... ............... 97

Diagnostic Code Cross Reference........ ....... 100

Welding Precaution ..................... ..................... 5

System Overview....................... ....................... 5

Glossary .......................................................... 10

Electronic Service Tools ................. ................ 13

Replacing the ECM..................... .................... 19

Self-Diagnostics....................... ....................... 19

Sensors and Electrical Connectors ........ ........ 20

Engine Wiring Information............... ............... 27

ECM Harness Connector Terminals........ ....... 30

Diagnostic Functional Tests

CAN Data Link - Test .................. .................. 104

Data Link - Test....................... ...................... 108

ECM Memory - Test................... ....................112

Electrical Connector - Inspect............ ............115

Electrical Power Supply - Test (Electronic

Control Module)..................... ......................118

Electrical Power Supply - Test (Injector Driver

Module)............................ ........................... 122

Injection Actuation Pressure - Test........ ....... 127

Injection Actuation Pressure Control Valve -

Test ............................... .............................. 131

Injection Actuation Pressure Sensor - Test.. . 134

Injector Solenoid - Test................. ................ 139

Sensor Supply - Test................... .................. 144

Sensor Signal (Analog, Active) - Test (Engine Oil

Pressure Sensor).................... .................... 147

Sensor Signal (Analog, Active) - Test (Manifold

Absolute Pressure Sensor)............. ............ 151

Sensor Signal (Analog, Active) - Test (Engine

Fuel Pressure Sensor)................ ................ 155

Sensor Signal (Analog, Active) - Test (Exhaust

Back Pressure Sensor)................ ............... 159

Sensor Signal (Analog, Passive) - Test (Engine

Oil Temperature)..................... .................... 163

Sensor Signal (Analog, Passive) - Test (Engine

Coolant Temperature Sensor)........... .......... 166

Sensor Signal (Analog, Passive) - Test (Intake

Manifold Air Temperature Sensor)....... ....... 170

Speed/Timing - Test (Camshaft Position

Programming Parameters

Programming Parameters ............... ............... 31

Flash Programming.................... .................... 31

Symptom Troubleshooting

Alternator Is Noisy ..................... ..................... 32

Alternator Problem..................... ..................... 34

Battery Problem....................... ....................... 35

Coolant Contains Oil.................... ................... 36

Coolant Level Is Low ................... ................... 36

Coolant Temperature Is High............. ............. 37

Cylinder Is Noisy....................... ...................... 40

ECM Does Not Communicate with Other

Modules............................ ............................ 43

Electronic Service Tool Does Not

Communicate........................ ........................ 47

Engine Cranks but Does Not Start......... ......... 49

Engine Does Not Crank................. ................. 54

Engine Has Early Wear ................. ................. 57

Engine Has Mechanical Noise (Knock)..... ..... 59

Engine Misfires, Runs Rough or Is Unstable. . 61

Engine Overspeeds.................... .................... 63

Engine Shutdown Occurs Intermittently..... .... 64

Engine Top Speed Is Not Obtained........ ........ 65

Engine Vibration Is Excessive............ ............ 67

Exhaust Back Pressure Problem.......... .......... 70

Exhaust Has Excessive Black Smoke...... ...... 71

Exhaust Has Excessive White Smoke ............ 73

Fuel Consumption Is Excessive ........... .......... 76

Fuel Contains Water.................... ................... 79

Fuel Pressure Problem.................. ................. 79

Injection Actuation Pressure Problem ...... ...... 80

Oil Consumption Is Excessive............ ............ 84

Oil Contains Coolant.................... ................... 85

Oil Contains Fuel...................... ...................... 87

Sensor)............................ ........................... 174

Speed/Timing - Test (Crankshaft Position

Sensor)............................ ........................... 177

Starting Aid - Test (Inlet Air Heater)....... ....... 181

Switch Circuits - Test (Engine Coolant Level

Switch)............................ ............................ 186

Valve Position - Test (Exhaust Gas Recirculation

Valve)............................. ............................. 189

Water in Fuel - Test.................... ................... 195

Index Section

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE.


 

4

KENR8774

Table of Contents

Index............................... .............................. 199

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE.


 

KENR8774

5

Electronic Troubleshooting

TroubleshootingSection

Electronic Troubleshooting

i05340059

Welding Precaution

Correct welding procedures are necessary in order to

avoid damage to the following components:

•   Electronic Control Module (ECM) on the engine

•   Sensors

•   Associated components

Illustration 1

g01143634

Components for the driven equipment should also be

considered. When possible, remove the component

that requires welding. When welding on an engine

that is equipped with an ECM and removal of the

component is not possible, the following procedure

must be followed. This procedure minimizes the risk

to the electronic components.

Service welding guide (typical diagram)

5. When possible, connect the ground clamp for the

welding equipment directly to the engine

component that will be welded. Place the clamp as

close as possible to the weld. Close positioning

reduces the risk of welding current damage to the

engine bearings, to the electrical components, and

to other components.

1. Stop the engine. Remove the electrical power from

the ECM.

2. Ensure that the fuel supply to the engine is turned

off.

6. Protect the wiring harnesses from welding debris

and/or from welding spatter.

3. Disconnect the negative battery cable from the

battery. If a battery disconnect switch is installed,

open the switch.

7. Use standard welding procedures to weld the

materials together.

4. Disconnect all electronic components from the

wiring harnesses. Include the following

components:

i05513196

System Overview

•   Electronic components for the driven equipment

The engine has an electronic control system. The

system controls the engine.

•   ECM

•   Sensors

The control system consists of the following

components:

•   Electronically controlled valves

•   Relays

•   Electronic Control Module (ECM)

•   Software (flash file)

•   Wiring

NOTICE

Do not use electrical components (ECM or ECM sen-

sors)  or electronic  component grounding  points  for

grounding the welder.

•   Sensors

•   Actuators

The following information provides a general

description of the control system. Refer to Systems

Operation, Testing, and Adjusting for detailed

information about the control system.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE.


 

6

KENR8774

Electronic Troubleshooting

Electronic Control Circuit Diagram

Illustration 2

g03383024

(1) Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) control

module

(2) Injector drive module (IDM)

(3) Electronic Control Module (ECM)

(including internal barometric pressure

sensor)

(5) Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) valve

(11) Inlet Air Temperature sensor

(6) Injection Control Pressure (ICP) sensor

(7) Engine Fuel Pressure (EFP) sensor

(8) Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT)

sensor

(9) Manifold Air Pressure (MAP) sensor

(10) Manifold Air Temperature (MAT) sensor

(12) Exhaust Back Pressure (EBP) sensor

(13) Engine Oil Pressure (EOP) sensor

(14) Camshaft Position (CMP) sensor

(15) Crankshaft Position (CKP) sensor

(16) Engine Oil Temperature (EOT) sensor

(17) Fuel injectors

(4) Injector Pressure Regulator (IPR)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE.


 

KENR8774

7

Electronic Troubleshooting

Block Diagram

Illustration 3

g02276814

Block diagram for the 1600 engine

(17) EGR cooler

(18) EGR valve

(19) Muffler

(20) Air cleaner

(21) Inlet Air Temperature(IAT) sensor

(22) Turbocharger

(23) EGR mixer

(24) Charge Air Cooler (CAC)

(25) Exhaust Back Pressure (EBP) sensor

(26) Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT)

sensor

(27) Crankshaft Position (CKP) sensor

(28) Engine

(35) Fuel strainer

(36) Injection Control Pressure (ICP) sensor

(37) Engine Oil Pressure (EOP) sensor

(38) Electronic control module (ECM)

(39) High-pressureoil pump

(40) Injector Drive Module (IDM)

(41) Manifold Air Temperature (MAT) sensor

(42) Manifold Air Pressure (MAP) sensor

(43) Fuel tank

(29) Injectors

(30) Low-pressure fuel pump

(31) Engine Fuel Pressure (EFP) sensor

(32) Inlet Air Heater (IAH)

(33) Camshaft Position (CMP) sensor

(34) Fuel filter

The Electronic Control Module (ECM) monitors and

controls engine performance to ensure maximum

performance and adherence to emissions standards.

The ECM has four primary functions:

values to determine the correct operating strategy for

all engine operations. Diagnostic Trouble Codes

(DTCs) are generated by the microprocessor, if inputs

or conditions do not comply with expected values.

•   Provides reference voltage

•   Conditions input signals

Diagnostic strategies are also programmed into the

ECM. Some strategies monitor inputs continuously

and command the necessary outputs to achieve the

correct performance of the engine.

•   Processes and stores control strategies

•   Controls actuators

Actuator control – The ECM controls the actuators

by applying a low-level signal (low side driver) or a

high-level signal (high side driver). When switched

on, the drivers complete a ground or power circuit to

an actuator.

Reference Voltage – The ECM supplies a 5 VDC

signal to input sensors in the electronic control

system. By comparing the 5 VDC signal sent to the

sensors with the respective returned signals, the

ECM determines pressures, positions, and other

variables important to engine functions.

Actuators are controlled in three ways, determined by

the type of actuator:

Signal Conditioner – The signal conditioner in the

internal microprocessor converts analog signals to

digital signals, squares up sine wave signals, or

amplifies low intensity signals to a level that the ECM

microprocessor can process.

•   A duty cycle (percent time on/off)

•   A controlled pulse-width

•   Switched on or off

Microprocessor – The ECM microprocessor stores

operating instructions (control strategies) and value

tables (calibration parameters). The ECM compares

stored instructions and values with conditioned input

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE.


 

8

KENR8774

Electronic Troubleshooting

Exhaust Gas Recirculation(EGR) Control

Valve

The ECM sends information (fuel volume, engine oil

temperature, and injection control pressure) through

the CAN 2 datalink to the IDM. The IDM uses this

information to calculate the injection cycle.

The EGR valve controls the flow of exhaust gases

into the inlet and EGR mixer duct.

Injector Power Source

The EGR drive module controls the EGR actuator.

The IDM creates a constant 48 VDC supply to all

injectors by making and breaking a 12 VDC source

across a coil in the IDM. The 48 VDC created by the

collapsed field is stored in capacitors until used by the

injectors.

The EGR drive module receives the desired EGR

actuator position from the ECM across the CAN 2

datalink to activate the valve for exhaust gas

recirculation. The EGR drive module provides

feedback to the ECM on the valve position.

The IDM controls when the injector is turned on and

how long the injector is active. The IDM first

The EGR drive module constantly monitors the EGR

actuator. When an EGR control error is detected, the

EGR drive module sends a message to the ECM and

a DTC is set.

energizes the OPEN coil, then the CLOSE coil. The

low side driver supplies a return circuit to the IDM for

each injector coil (open and close). The high side

driver controls the power supply to the injector. During

each injection event, the low and high side drivers are

switched on and off for each coil.

Injection Pressure Regulator (IPR)

The IPR valve controls pressure in the Injection

Control Pressure (ICP) system. The IPR valve is a

variable position valve controlled by the ECM. This

regulated pressure actuates the fuel injectors. The

valve position is controlled by switching the ground

circuit in the ECM. The voltage source is supplied by

the ignition switch.

IDM and Injector Diagnostics

The IDM determines if an injector is drawing enough

current. The IDM sends a fault to the ECM, indicating

potential problems in the wiring harness or injector,

and the ECM will set a DTC. The IDM also does self-

diagnostic checks and sets a DTC to indicate failure

of the IDM.

Inlet Air Heater (IAH)

On-demand tests can be done using the Electronic

Service Tool (EST). The ESTsends a request to the

ECM and the ECM sends a request to the IDM to do a

test. Some tests generate a DTC when a problem

exists. Other tests require the technician to evaluate

parameters, if a problem exists.

The IAH system warms the incoming air supply prior

to cranking to aid cold engine starting and reduce

white smoke during warm-up.

The ECM is programmed to energize the IAH

elements through the IAH relays while monitoring

certain programmed conditions for engine coolant

temperature, engine oil temperature, and

atmospheric pressure.

Engine Sensors

Temperature Sensors

Injection Drive Module (IDM)

A thermistor sensor changes electrical resistance

with changes in temperature. Resistance in the

thermistor decreases as temperature increases, and

increases as temperature decreases. Thermistors

work with a resistor that limits current in the ECM to

form a voltage signal matched with a temperature

value.

The IDM has three functions:

•   Electronic distributor for injectors

•   Power source for injectors

•   IDM and injector diagnostics

The top half of the voltage divider is the current

limiting resistor inside the ECM. A thermistor sensor

has two electrical connectors, signal return and

ground. The output of a thermistor sensor is a

nonlinear analog signal.

The IDM distributes current to the injectors. The IDM

controls fueling to the engine by sending high voltage

pulses to the OPEN and CLOSE coils of the injector.

The IDM uses information from the ECM to determine

the timing and quantity of fuel for each injector.

Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT)

The ECM uses CKP sensor and CMP sensor input

signals to calculate engine speed and position. The

ECM conditions both input signals and supplies the

IDM with the speed/timing sensor output signals. The

IDM uses these signals to determine the correct

sequence for injector firing.

The ECM monitors the ECTsignal and uses this

information for the instrument panel temperature

gauge, coolant compensation, Engine Warning

Protection System (EWPS), and inlet air heater

operation. The ECT is a backup, if the engine oil

temperature is out-of-range. The ECTsensor is

installed in the water supply housing , right of the flat

idler pulley assembly.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE.


 

KENR8774

9

Electronic Troubleshooting

Engine Oil Temperature (EOT)

Exhaust Back Pressure (EBP)

The ECM monitors the EOTsignal to control fuel

quantity and timing when operating the engine. The

EOTsignal allows the ECM and IDM to compensate

for differences in oil viscosity for temperature

changes. This compensation ensures that power and

torque are available for all operating conditions. The

EOTsensor is installed in the rear of the front cover,

left of the high-pressure oil pump assembly.

The EBP sensor measures exhaust back pressure so

that the ECM can control the EGR system. The

sensor provides feedback to the ECM for closed loop

control of the Turbocharger. The EBP sensor is

installed in a bracket mounted on the water supply

housing.

Engine Fuel Pressure (EFP)

Intake Air Temperature (IAT)

The ECM uses the EFP sensor signal to monitor

engine fuel pressure and give an indication when the

fuel filter needs to be changed. The EFP sensor is

installed in the rear of the fuel filter assembly

(crankcase side).

The ECM monitors the IATsignal to control timing and

fuel rate during cold starts. The IATsensor is mounted

on the air filter housing.

Manifold Air Temperature (MAT)

Micro Strain Gauge Sensors

The ECM monitors the MATsignal for EGR operation.

The MATsensor is installed in the intake manifold.

A micro strain gauge sensor measures pressure.

Pressure to be measured exerts force on a pressure

vessel that stretches and compresses to change

resistance of strain gauges bonded to the surface of

the pressure vessel. Internal sensor electronics

convert the changes in resistance to a ratio metric

voltage output.

Variable capacitance sensor

Variable capacitance sensors measure pressure. The

pressure measured is applied to a ceramic material.

The pressure forces the ceramic material closer to a

thin metal disk. This action changes the capacitance

of the sensor.

The sensor is connected to the ECM by three wires:

•   5 VDC supply

The sensor is connected to the ECM by three wires:

•   5 VDC supply

•   Signal return

•   Signal ground

•   Signal return

The sensor receives the 5 VDC supply and returns an

analog signal voltage to the ECM. The ECM

compares the voltage with pre-programmed values to

determine pressure.

•   Signal ground

The sensor receives the 5 VDC and returns an

analog signal voltage to the ECM. The ECM

compares the voltage with pre-programmed values to

determine pressure.

Injection Control Pressure (ICP)

The ECM monitors the ICP signal to determine the

injection control pressure for engine operation. The

ICP signal is used to control the IPR valve. The ICP

sensor provides feedback to the ECM for Closed

Loop ICP control. The ICP sensor is under the valve

cover, forward of the No. 6 fuel injector in the high-

pressure oil rail.

Barometric Absolute Pressure (BAP)

The ECM monitors the BAP signal to determine

altitude, adjust timing, fuel quantity, and inlet air

heater operation.

Intake Manifold Air Pressure (MAP)

Magnetic Pickup Sensors

The ECM monitors the MAP signal to determine

intake manifold pressure (boost). This information is

used to control fuel rate and injection timing. The

MAP sensor is installed left of the MATsensor in the

intake manifold.

A magnetic pickup sensor generates an alternating

frequency that indicates speed. Magnetic pickups

have a two wire connection for signal and ground.

This sensor has a permanent magnetic core

surrounded by a wire coil. The signal frequency is

generated by the rotation of gear teeth that disturb the

magnetic field.

Engine Oil Pressure (EOP)

The ECM monitors the EOP signal, and uses this

information for the instrument panel pressure gauge

and EWPS. The EOP sensor is installed in the left

side of the crankcase below and left of the fuel filter

housing.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE.


 

10

KENR8774

Electronic Troubleshooting

Crankshaft Position (CKP) sensor

Event Codes

Event Codes are used to indicate that the ECM has

detected an abnormal engine operating condition.

The ECM will log the occurrence of the event code.

An event code does not indicate an electrical

malfunction or an electronic malfunction. For

example, if the temperature of the coolant in the

engine is higher than the permitted limit, then the

ECM will detect the condition. The ECM will then log

an event code for the condition.

The CKP sensor provides the ECM with a signal that

indicates crankshaft speed and position. As the

crankshaft turns, the CKP sensor detects a 60 tooth

timing disk on the crankshaft. Teeth 59 and 60 are

missing. By comparing the crankshaft signal with the

camshaft signal, the ECM calculates engine rpm and

timing requirements. The CKP sensor is installed in

the top left side of the flywheel housing.

Camshaft Position (CMP) sensor

Engine Warning Protection System

(EWPS)

The CMP sensor provides the ECM with a signal that

indicates camshaft position. As the cam rotates, the

sensor identifies the position of the cam by locating a

peg on the cam. The CMP is installed in the front

cover, above and to the left of the water pump pulley.

The EWPS safeguards the engine from undesirable

operating conditions to prevent engine damage and

to prolong engine life. The ECM will illuminate the red

ENGINE lamp when the ECM detects:

Switches

•   High coolant temperature

•   Low oil pressure

Switch sensors indicate position, level, or status.

Switch sensors operate open or closed, allowing or

preventing the flow of current. A switch sensor can be

a voltage input switch or a grounding switch. A

voltage input switch supplies the ECM with a voltage

when closed. A grounding switch will ground the

circuit when closed, causing a zero voltage signal.

Grounding switches are usually installed in series

with a current limiting resistor.

•   Low coolant level

When the protection feature is enabled and a critical

engine condition occurs, the on-board electronics will

shut down the engine. An event logging feature will

record the event in engine hours. After the engine has

shutdown, and the critical condition remains, the

engine can be started for a 30 second run time.

Water In Fuel (WIF)

i05510289

A Water In Fuel (WIF) switch in the element cavity of

the fuel filter housing detects water. When enough

water accumulates in the element cavity, the WIF

sensor signal changes to the Electronic Control

Module (ECM). The ECM sends a message to

illuminate the amber water and fuel lamp, alerting the

operator. The WIF is installed in the base of the fuel

filter housing.

Glossary

Actuator – A device that performs work in response

to an input signal.

Aeration – The entrapment of gas (air or combustion

gas) in the coolant, lubricant, or fuel.

Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTC)

After cooler (Charge Air Cooler) – A heat

exchanger mounted in the charge air path between

the turbocharger and engine intake manifold. The

after cooler reduces the charge air temperature by

transferring heat from the charge air to a cooling

medium (usually air).

Diagnostic Codes

When the ECM detects an electronic system fault, the

ECM generates a diagnostic code. Also, the ECM

logs the diagnostic code in order to indicate the time

of the occurrence. The ECM also logs the number of

occurrences of the fault. Diagnostic codes are

provided in order to indicate that the ECM has

detected an electrical fault or an electronic fault with

the engine control system. In some cases, the engine

performance can be affected when the condition that

is causing the code exists.

Air Management System (AMS) – The AMS

controls and directs air through the intake and

exhaust which affects engine performance and

controls emissions.

Alternating Current (AC) – An electric current that

reverses direction at regularly recurring intervals.

If the operator indicates that a performance issue

occurs, the diagnostic code may indicate the cause of

the issue. Use the electronic service tool to access

the diagnostic codes. Any fault should then be

corrected.

Ambient temperature – The environmental air

temperature in which a unit is operating. In general,

the temperature is measured in the shade (no solar

radiation) and represents the air temperature for other

engine cooling performance measurement purposes.

Air entering the radiator may or may not be the same

ambient due to possible heating from other sources

or recirculation.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE.


 

KENR8774

11

Electronic Troubleshooting

Ampere (amp) – The standard unit for measuring the

strength of an electrical current. The flow rate of a

charge in a conductor or conducting medium of 1

coulomb per second.

Crankshaft (CKP) sensor – The CKP sensor is a

magnetic pickup sensor that indicates crankshaft

speed and position.

Current – The flow of electrons passing through a

Analog – A continuously variable voltage.

conductor. Measured in amperes.

American Trucking Association (ATA) Data link  –

A serial data link specified by the American Trucking

Association and the SAE.

Damper – A device that reduces the amplitude of

torsional vibration.

Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) – Formerly called a

Fault Code. A DTC is a three digit numeric code used

for troubleshooting.

Barometric Absolute Pressure (BAP) sensor – A

variable capacitance sensor which, when supplied

with a 5 V reference signal from the ECM, produces a

linear analog voltage signal indicating atmospheric

pressure.

Direct Current (DC) – An electric current flowing in

one direction only and substantially constant in value.

Boost pressure – The pressure of the charge air

leaving the turbocharger or inlet manifold pressure

that is greater than atmospheric pressure. Obtained

by turbocharging.

Disable – A computer decision that deactivates a

system and prevents operation of the system.

Displacement – The stroke of the piston multiplied

by the area of the cylinder bore multiplied by the

number of cylinders in the engine.

Bottom Dead Center (BDC) – The lowest position of

the piston during the stroke.

Electronic Control Module (ECM) – The Electronic

Control Module is an electronic microprocessor that

monitors and controls engine performance, exhaust

emissions, and engine system performance. The

ECM provides diagnostic information for engine

systems and can be programmed at different levels

for engine protection, warning, and shutdown.

Calibration – The data values used by the strategy to

solve equations and make decisions. Calibration

values are stored in ROM and put into the processor

during programming to allow the engine to operate

within certain parameters.

Camshaft Position (CMP) sensor – The CMP

sensor is a magnetic pickup sensor which indicates

engine position. Speed is indicated by the number of

vanes counted per revolution of the camshaft.

Camshaft position is indicated by a single position

peg that indicates Cylinder Number 1.

Engine Control Module (ECM) power relay – An

ECM controlled relay that supplies power to the ECM.

Electronic Service Tool (EST) – A computer

diagnostic and programming tool for the ECM. The

hardware is typically a laptop computer or notebook

computer.

Charge air – Dense, pressurized, heated air

discharged from the turbocharger.

Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) sensor – A

thermistor sensor that senses engine coolant

temperature.

Closed crankcase – Crankcase ventilation system

that recycles crankcase gases through a breather,

then back to the clean air intake.

Engine Fuel Pressure (EFP) sensor – A variable

Closed loop operation – A system that uses a

sensor to provide feedback to the ECM. The ECM

uses the sensor to continuously monitor variables

and make adjustments in order to match engine

requirements.

capacitance sensor that senses fuel pressure.

Engine Family Rating Code (EFRC) – A readable

code in the calibration list of the EST that identifies

engine horsepower and emission calibrations.

Engine OFF tests – Tests that are done with the

ignition key ON and the engine OFF.

Continuous Monitor Test – An ECM function that

continuously monitors the inputs and outputs to

ensure that readings are within set limits.

Engine RUNNING tests – Tests done with the engine

running.

Controller Area Network (CAN) – A J1939 high

speed communication link. CAN 1 is a public data link

between other modules and the ECM. CAN 2 is a

private link between the ECM and IDM.

Engine Oil Pressure (EOP) sensor – A variable

capacitance sensor that senses engine oil pressure.

Engine Oil Temperature (EOT) sensor – A

thermistor sensor that senses engine oil temperature.

Coolant – A fluid used to transport heat from one

point to another.

Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) – The Exhaust

Gas Recirculation is a system that recycles a

controlled portion of exhaust gas back into the

combustion chamber to reduce Nitrogen Oxide

exhaust emissions.

Crankcase – The housing that encloses the

crankshaft, connecting rods, and allied parts.

Crankcase breather – A vent for the crankcase to

release excess interior air pressure.

Crankcase pressure – The force of air inside the

crankcase against the crankcase housing.

Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) drive module  –

The EGR drive module controls the position of the

EGR valve.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE.


 

12

KENR8774

Electronic Troubleshooting

Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) cooler – The

exhaust gas is cooled in the EGR cooler and flows

through the EGR control valve to the EGR mixer duct.

Injection Control Pressure (ICP) sensor – A

variable capacitance sensor that senses injection

control pressure.

Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) valve – The EGR

valve, when open, will mix exhaust gas with filtered

intake air which flows into the intake manifold. The

EGR valve, when closed, only allows filtered air to

flow into the intake manifold.

Injector Drive Module (IDM) power relay – An IDM

controlled relay that supplies power to the IDM.

Intake Air Temperature (IAT) sensor – A thermistor

sensor that senses intake air temperature.

Intake manifold – A plenum through which the air

mixture flows from the charged air cooler piping to the

intake passages of the cylinder head.

Exhaust manifold – Exhaust gases flow through the

exhaust manifold to the turbocharger exhaust inlet

and are directed to the EGR cooler or out the exhaust

system.

Intake Manifold Air Pressure Sensor (MAP) – The

Intake Manifold Pressure Sensor measures the

pressure in the intake manifold. The pressure in the

intake manifold may be different to the pressure

outside the engine (atmospheric pressure). The

difference in pressure may be caused by an increase

in air pressure by a turbocharger.

Fault detection and management – An alternate

control strategy that reduces adverse effects that can

be caused by a system failure. If a sensor fails, the

ECM substitutes a good sensor signal or assumed

sensor value.

Filter restriction – A blockage, usually from

contaminants, that prevents the flow of fluid through a

filter.

Intake Manifold Air Temperature Sensor (MAT) – A

thermistor style sensor housed in the intake manifold

used to indicate air temperature after passing through

the charge air cooler.

Flash File – This file is software that is inside the

ECM. The file contains all the instructions (software)

for the ECM and the file contains the performance

maps for a specific engine. The file may be

J1939 CAN Data Links – These data links are SAE

standard diagnostic communications data links that

are used to communicate between the ECM and

other electronic devices.

reprogrammed through flash programming.

Flash Programming – Flash programming is the

method of programming or updating an ECM with an

electronic service tool over the data link instead of

replacing components.

Logged Diagnostic Codes – Logged diagnostic

codes are codes which are stored in the memory.

These codes are an indicator of possible causes for

intermittent problems. Refer to the term  “Diagnostic

Trouble Codes” for more information.

Fuel inlet restriction – A blockage, usually from

contaminants, that prevents the flow of fluid through

the fuel inlet line.

Lubricity – Lubricity is the ability of a substance to

reduce friction between solid surfaces in relative

motion under loaded conditions.

Fuel pressure – The force that the fuel exerts on the

fuel system as it is pumped through the fuel system.

Microprocessor – An integrated circuit in a

Fuel strainer – A pre-filter in the fuel system that

keeps larger contaminants from entering the fuel

system.

microcomputer that controls information flow.

Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) – Nitrogen oxides form by a

reaction between nitrogen and oxygen at high

temperatures and pressures in the combustion

chamber.

Hall effect – The development of a transverse

electric potential gradient in a current-carrying

conductor or semiconductor when a magnetic field is

applied.

Normally closed – Refers to a switch that remains

closed when no control force is acting on it.

Hall effect sensor – Generates a digital on or off

signal that indicates speed or position.

Normally open – Refers to a switch that remains

open when no control force is acting on it.

Harness – The harness is the bundle of wiring (loom)

that connects all components of the electronic

system.

Ohm (Ω) – The unit of resistance. 1 ohm is the value

of resistance through which a potential of 1 V will

maintain a current of 1 ampere.

Hertz (Hz) – Hertz is the measure of electrical

frequency in cycles per second.

On-demand test – A self test that the technician

initiates using the EST. It is run from a program in the

processor.

Injection Pressure Regulator (IPR) – A PulseWidth

Modulated (PWM) regulator valve, controlled by the

ECM, that regulates injection control pressure.

Open Circuit – An open circuit is a condition that is

caused by an open switch, or by an electrical wire or

a connection that is broken. When this condition

exists, the signal or the supply voltage can no longer

reach the intended destination.

Injection Control Pressure (ICP) – High lube oil

pressure generated by a high-pressure pump/

pressure regulator used to hydraulically actuate the

fuel injectors.

Output Circuit Check (OCC) – An On-demand test

done during an Engine OFF self test to check the

continuity of selected actuators.

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Supply Voltage – The supply voltage is a continuous

voltage that is supplied to a component. The power

may be generated by the ECM or the power may be

battery voltage that is supplied by the engine wiring.

Output State Check (OSC) – An On-demand test

that forces the processor to activate actuators (High

or Low) for additional diagnostics.

Parameter – A parameter is a value or a limit that is

programmable. A parameter helps determine specific

characteristics or behaviors of the engine.

Switch sensors – Switch sensors indicate position.

They operate open or closed, allowing or preventing

the flow of current. A switch sensor can be a voltage

input switch or a grounding switch. A voltage input

switch supplies the ECM with a voltage when it is

closed. A grounding switch grounds the circuit closed,

causing a zero voltage signal. Grounding switches

are usually installed in series with a current limiting

resistor.

Particulate matter – Particulate matter includes

mostly burned particles of fuel and engine oil.

Potentiometer – A potentiometer is a variable

voltage divider that senses the position of a

mechanical component. A reference voltage is

applied to one end of the potentiometer. Mechanical

rotary or linear motion moves the wiper along the

resistance material, changing voltage at each point

along the resistive material. Voltage is proportional to

the amount of mechanical movement.

Top Dead Center (TDC) – The highest position of the

piston during the stroke.

Torque – Torque is a measure of force producing

torsion and rotation around an axis. Torque is the

product of the force, usually measured in pounds, and

radius perpendicular to the axis of the force extending

to the point where the force is applied or where it

originates, usually measured in feet.

Power Cycling – Power cycling refers to the action of

cycling the keyswitch from any position to the OFF

position, and to the START/RUN position.

Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) – The time that an

actuator, such as an injector, remains energized.

Turbocharger – A turbine driven compressor

mounted to the exhaust manifold. The turbocharger

increases the pressure, temperature, and density of

intake air to charge air.

Random Access Memory (RAM) – Computer

memory that stores information. Information can be

written to and read from RAM. Input information

(current engine speed or temperature) can be stored

in RAM to be compared to values stored in Read

Only Memory (ROM). All memory in RAM is lost when

the ignition switch is turned off.

Valve cover gasket – A valve cover gasket that

contains the pass through electronic wiring harness

connectors for the ICP sensor, and six fuel injectors.

Variable capacitance sensor – A variable

capacitance sensor is a sensor that measures

pressure. The pressure measured is applied to a

ceramic material. The pressure forces the ceramic

material closer to a thin metal disk. This action

changes the capacitance of the sensor.

Read Only Memory (ROM) – Computer memory that

stores permanent information for calibration tables

and operating strategies. Permanently stored

information in ROM cannot be changed or lost by

turning the engine off or when ECM power is

interrupted.

Viscosity – The internal resistance to the flow of any

fluid.

Reference Voltage – Reference voltage is a

regulated voltage that is supplied by the ECM to a

sensor. The reference voltage is used by the sensor

to generate a signal voltage.

Volt (v) – A unit of electromotive force that will move

a current of 1 ampere through a resistance of 1 Ohm.

Voltage – Electrical potential expressed in volts.

Voltage drop – Reduction in applied voltage from the

current flowing through a circuit or portion of the

circuit current multiplied by resistance.

Relay – A relay is an electromechanical switch. A

flow of electricity in one circuit is used to control the

flow of electricity in another circuit. A small current or

voltage is applied to a relay in order to switch a much

larger current or voltage.

Wastegate – The wastegate is a device in a

turbocharged engine that controls the maximum

boost pressure that is provided to the inlet manifold.

Sensor – A sensor is a device that is used to detect

the current value of pressure or temperature, or

mechanical movement. The information that is

detected is converted into an electrical signal.

Water In Fuel (WIF) switch – The WIF switch detects

water in the fuel.

Short Circuit – A short circuit is a condition that has

an electrical circuit that is inadvertently connected to

an undesirable point. An example of a short circuit is

a wire which rubs against a vehicle frame and this

rubbing eventually wears off the wire insulation.

Electrical contact with the frame is made and results

in a short circuit.

i05513169

Electronic Service Tools

Perkins  electronic service tools are designed to help

the service technician:

Signal – The signal is a voltage or a waveform that is

used in order to transmit information typically from a

sensor to the ECM.

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•   Retrieve diagnostic codes.

Connecting the Perkins  1306/1606

Diagnostic Software and the

•   Diagnose electrical problems.

Communication Adapter 3 (CA3)

Service Tools

The following tools are used to diagnose electrical

faults.

Table 1

Required Service Tools

Part Number

27610376

Description

3-Way Adaptor Harness

27610398

Under Valve Cover (UVC) Sensor Breakout

Harness

27610374

27610375

27610393

27610377

Actuator Breakout Harness

500 Ohm Resistor Harness

Pressure Sensor Breakout Harness

Temperature Sensor Breakout Harness

27610378

Relay Breakout Harness

1306/1606 Perkins  Diagnostic Tool

The Perkins  Electronic Service Tool can display the

following information:

•   Status of all pressure sensors and temperature

sensors

•   Active diagnostic codes and logged diagnostic

codes

Illustration 4

g01121866

(1) Personal Computer (PC)

•   Logged events

(2) Adapter Cable (Computer Serial Port)

(3) Communication Adapter 3 (CA3)

(4) Adapter Cable Assembly

The Electronic Service Tool can also be use, d to

perform diagnostic tests.

Note: Items (2), (3) and (4) are part of the CA3 kit.

Table 2 lists the service tools that are required in

order to use the Electronic Service Tool.

Table 2

Use the following procedure in order to connect the

Perkins  1306/1606 Diagnostic Software and CA3.

Service Tools for the Use of the Electronic Service

Tool

1. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.

2. Connect cable (2) between the “COMPUTER”

end of communication adapter (3) and the USB l

port of PC (1).

Part Number

Description

Single Use Program License

Data Subscription for All Engines

-(1)

-

(1)

3. Connect cable (4) between the “DATA LINK” end

of communication adapter (3) and the service tool

connector.

Communication Adapter (Electronic Service Tool

to the ECM interface)

27610401

(1)

Refer to Perkins Engine Company Limited.

4. Place the keyswitch in the ON position.

Note: For more information on the Perkins 1306/

1606 Diagnostic Software and the PC requirements,

refer to the documentation that accompanies the

Perkins  1306/1606 Diagnostic Software.

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Illustration 5

g03384803

5. Select the correct data link. Refer to Illustration 5

Illustration 6

g03384841

6. Select the correct engine type. Refer to Illustration

6 .

7. If the Perkins  1306/1606 Diagnostic Software and

the communication adapter do not communicate

with the Electronic Control Module (ECM), refer to

the diagnostic procedure Troubleshooting,

“Electronic Service Tool Does Not Communicate”.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE.


 

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Perkins  1306/1606 Diagnostic

Software Functions

Optional Engine Events

Optional engine events are monitored and recorded,

if the engine is equipped with the optional Engine

Warning Protection System (EWPS). Optional engine

events recorded by the ECM include low coolant level

and low oil pressure.

Continuous Monitor

Continuous Monitor is a series of continuous

diagnostic tests done by the Electronic Control

Module (ECM) to detect failure modes (Out of Range,

In Range, and System Faults). During Continuous

Monitor the ignition switch is on.

Engine Event Hours

The ECM records engine events in hours .

•   Out of Range High (Voltage over normal operating

range)

The ECM stores the two most recent events. Two

events could happen in the same hour, and two

events could happen in the same mile.

•   Out of Range Low (Voltage under normal

operating range)

Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs)

•   In Range (In normal operating range but not

correct for conditions)

Type - Indicates active or inactive DTCs.

•   System Malfunction (System is not operating

according to conditions)

Active – With the ignition switch in the ON position,

active indicates a DTC for a condition currently in the

system. When the ignition switch is turned off, an

active DTC becomes inactive. (If a problem remains,

the DTC will be active on the next ignition switch

cycle and the Perkins  1306/1606 Diagnostic

Software will display active/inactive.)

If an input signal is out of range (over or under normal

operating range), the ECM logs a fault and sets a

Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC). The ECM monitors

the operation of systems for in range conditions to

determine if systems are working in a normal

operational range. If the ECM detects that a system

falls outside a predetermined range, a fault will be

logged and a DTC will be set.

Inactive – With the ignition switch in the ON position,

inactive indicates a DTC for a condition during a

previous ignition switch cycle. When the ignition

switch is turned to OFF, inactive DTCs from previous

ignition switch cycles remain in the ECM memory until

cleared.

Each DTC has a three-digit number to identify the

source of a malfunction measured or monitored

electronically. A fault is a malfunction measured or

monitored electronically.

Active/Inactive – With the ignition switch in the ON

position, active/inactive indicates a DTC for a

condition currently in the system and was present in a

previous ignition switch cycle, if the code was not

cleared.

The ECM continuously monitors the Injection Control

Pressure (ICP) system and the Air Management

System (AMS). If the ECM detects that a system falls

outside a predetermined range, the ECM logs a fault

and sets a DTC.

Description - Defines each DTC

During normal engine operation, the ECM

automatically performs several tests to detect faults.

Diagnostic Tests

When a fault is detected, the ECM often runs a fault

management strategy to allow continued, though

sometimes degraded, engine operation.

Perkins  1306/1606 Diagnostic Software is required

to perform the following tests.

With the engine running, engine events are

permanently recorded in the ECM. Engine events can

be retrieved with the Perkins  1306/1606 Diagnostic

Software.

Key-On Engine-Off (KOEO) Tests

Standard Test

The KOEO Standard test is done by the ECM. The

technician runs this test, using the EST.

Engine Events

During the KOEO Standard test, the ECM does an

internal test of the processing components and

memory followed by an Output Circuit Check (OCC).

The OCC evaluates the electrical condition of the

circuits, not mechanical or hydraulic performance of

the systems. By operating the ECM output circuits

and measuring each response, the Standard test

detects shorts or opens in the harnesses, actuators,

and ECM. If a circuit fails the test, a fault is logged

and a DTC is set.

Standard Engine Events

Standard engine events include excessive coolant

temperature and engine rpm (over-speed).

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The ECM checks the Injection pressure regulator

circuit.

•   Barometric Absolute Pressure (BAP)

•   Battery Voltage

When the OCC is done, the DTC window will display

DTCs, if there are problems.

•   EGR Valve Position

Note: When using the EST to do KOEO or Key-On

Engine-Running (KOER) diagnostic tests, Standard

test is always selected and run first. If the ignition

switch is not cycled, do not run the Standard Test

again.

•   Exhaust Back Pressure (EBP)

•   Engine Coolant Level (ECL)

•   Engine Fuel Pressure (EFP) (optional)

•   Engine Oil Pressure (EOP)

•   Engine Oil Temperature (EOT)

•   Intake Air Temperature (IAT)

•   Injection Control Pressure (ICP)

•   Manifold Air Temperature (MAT)

•   Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP)

Injector Test

Note: The Standard test must be done before doing

the Injector test. The Injector test diagnoses electrical

problems in IDM wiring or injectors.

Note: Before doing the Injector test, DTCs should be

accessed, noted, and cleared. DTCs found will then

be displayed as Active DTCs.

During the Injector test, the ECM requests the IDM

actuate the injectors in numerical order (1 through 6),

not in ring order. The IDM monitors the electrical

circuit for each injector, evaluates the performance of

the injector coils, and checks the operation of the

electrical circuit. If an electronic component in the

injector drive circuit fails the expected parameters,

the IDM sends a fault to the ECM. The ECM logs the

fault, a DTC is set and sent to the EST.

Output State Low Test

The Output State Low test allows the technician to

diagnose the operation of the output signals and

actuators.

In the Output State Low test mode, the ECM pulls

down the output voltage to the low state. This

grounds the low side driver circuits and actuates the

output components controlled by the ECM.

Note: The technician can monitor injector operation

by listening to the sound of each injector when

activated by the IDM. During Hard Start and No Start

conditions, when oil is cold and thick, injectors may

be hard to hear.

During Output State Low test, the output of the circuit

in question can be monitored with a Digital Multimeter

(DMM). The DMM measures a low voltage state as

the outputs are toggled. The actual voltage will vary

with the circuit tested.

The DTC window will display DTCs, if there are

problems.

Note: A breakout harness and a DMM are required to

monitor the suspected circuit or actuator. DTCs are

not set by the ECM during this test.

Continuous Monitor Test

The Continuous Monitor test troubleshoots

intermittent connections between the ECM and

sensors. The engine can be off or running.

The following actuators are activated when toggled

low during the test:

•   Injection Pressure Regulator (IPR) (electrical

circuit only)

The EST monitors the following circuits:

•   EGR (audible and visual inspection only)

continuous monitoring by EGR drive module

Glow Plug/Inlet Air Heater Output State

Test

The Glow Plug/Inlet Air Heater Output State test

allows the technician to determine if the Inlet Air

Heater System is operating correctly.

The inlet air heater relay operation is activated for 30

seconds. A DMM and current clamp are used to

measure the time the relay is on and the amperage

that is drawn for the inlet air heater.

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Key-On Engine-Running(KOER) Tests

Standard Test

When all cylinders are active, the contribution of each

cylinder is 17% of the overall effect to maintain

governed speed. When three cylinders are shut off,

contribution of each remaining cylinder is 33% of the

overall effect to maintain governed speed. The

technician should monitor fuel rate and engine load.

During the KOER Standard test, the ECM commands

the IPR through a step test to determine if the ICP

system is performing as expected. The ECM monitors

signal values from the ICP sensor and compares

those values to the expected values. When the

Standard test is done, the ECM returns the engine to

normal operation and transmits DTCs set during the

test.

Note: The Relative Compression test should be done

after doing the Injector Disable test to distinguish

between an injector or mechanical problem.

Note: Before running the manual or automatic

injector disable test, ensure that the following

conditions are met:

Note: Before doing this test, confirm the following

conditions:

•   Make sure that accessories are turned off. Items

cycled during this test could corrupt the test

results.

•   Problems causing active DTCs were corrected,

and active DTCs were cleared.

•   Keep engine oil temperature within a 2° C  (5° F)

range from the beginning to the end of the test.

Engine oil temperature affects injection timing. Too

much of a change in engine oil temperature could

corrupt the test results.

•   Engine coolant temperature must be at least 70° C

(158° F)70 °C (158 °F).

•   Battery voltage must be higher than 10.5 VDC.

Continuous Monitor Test

Note: If any injectors are removed and reinstalled or

replaced, run the engine for 30 minutes before

checking for misfire or rough idle.

The Continuous Monitor test troubleshoots

intermittent connections at sensors and actuators.

The engine can be off or running.

Automatic Test

The EST monitors the following circuits:

•   Barometric Absolute Pressure (BAP)

•   Battery Voltage

The Automatic test is used when comparing cylinder

to cylinder test data.

Note: Do KOER Standard test before doing this test.

•   Exhaust Back Pressure (EBP)

•   Engine Coolant Level (ECL)

•   Engine Fuel Pressure (EFP) (optional)

•   Engine Oil Pressure (EOP)

Manual Test - Engine Cold

The Manual test is used when diagnosing each

cylinder for cold misfire, considering engine oil

temperature changes.

The engine oil temperature indicator will change from

red to green when engine temperature reaches 70° C

(158° F) or higher.

•   Engine Oil Temperature (EOT)

•   Intake Air Temperature (IAT)

•   Injection Control Pressure (ICP)

•   Manifold Air Temperature (MAT)

•   Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP)

If the engine oil temperature indicator is red,

erroneous comparisons are likely from cylinder to

cylinder. However, when diagnosing a cold misfire, a

technician can listen to tone changes from cylinder-

to-cylinder.

When the engine oil temperature indicator is green

and the engine temperature is 70° C  (158° F) or

higher, fuel rate and timing are more stable, meaning

that comparisons from cylinder to cylinder are more

accurate. Overall engine operation is more stable.

Injector Disable Tests

The Injector Disable tests allow the technician to shut

off injectors to determine if a specific cylinder is

contributing to engine performance. Injectors can be

shut off one at a time, alternative cylinders at a time

or alternative cylinders plus one.

Shut off one injector at a time and listen for changes

in exhaust tone.

Note: If any injectors are removed and reinstalled or

replaced, run the engine for 30 minutes before

checking for misfire or rough idle.

Alternate cylinders are every other cylinder in ring

order.

Firing order: 1-5-3-6-2-4

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i05584049

If an input signal is out of range (over or under normal

operating range), the ECM logs a fault and sets a

Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC). The ECM monitors

the operation of systems for in range conditions to

determine if systems are working in a normal

operational range. If the ECM detects that a system

falls outside a predetermined range, a fault will be

logged and a DTC will be set.

Replacing the ECM

NOTICE

Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Each DTC has a three-digit number to identify the

source of a malfunction measured or monitored

electronically. A fault is a malfunction measured or

monitored electronically.

Contaminants may cause  rapid wear and  shortened

component life.

The engine is equipped with an Electronic Control

Module (ECM). The ECM contains no moving parts.

Follow the troubleshooting procedures in this manual

in order to be sure that replacing the ECM will correct

the problem. Verify that the suspect ECM is the cause

of the problem.

The ECM continuously monitors the Injection Control

Pressure (ICP) system and the Air Management

System (AMS). If the ECM detects that a system falls

outside a predetermined range, the ECM logs a fault

and sets a DTC.

During normal engine operation, the ECM

automatically performs several tests to detect faults.

Note: Ensure that the ECM is receiving power and

that the ECM is properly grounded before

replacement of the ECM is attempted. Refer to the

schematic diagram.

When a fault is detected, the ECM often runs a fault

management strategy to allow continued, though

sometimes degraded, engine operation.

Note: When a new ECM is not available, an ECM can

be used from an engine that is not in service. The

ECM must have the same serial number suffix.

Ensure that the replacement ECM and the part

number for the flash file match the suspect ECM. Be

sure to record the parameters from the replacement

ECM.

With the engine running, engine events are

permanently recorded in the ECM. Engine events can

be retrieved with the Perkins  1306/1606 Diagnostic

Software.

Diagnostic Trouble Code – When a fault in the

electronic system is detected, the ECM generates a

diagnostic trouble code. The diagnostic trouble code

indicates the specific fault in the circuitry.

NOTICE

If  the   flash  file   and  engine   application  are   not

matched, engine damage may result.

Diagnostic codes can have three different states:

Active – With the ignition switch in the ON position,

active indicates a DTC for a condition currently in the

system. When the ignition switch is turned off, an

active DTC becomes inactive. (If a problem remains,

the DTC will be active on the next ignition switch

cycle and the Perkins  1306/1606 Diagnostic

Software will display active/inactive.)

A replacement ECM and IDM can be obtained with

the flash file already installed or a blank ECM can be

ordered.

If a blank ECM or IDM is being installed, contact

“PartsHelpdesk@Perkins.com ” for the correct flash

file. To install the flash file, refer to Troubleshooting,

“Flash Programming”.

Inactive – With the ignition switch in the ON position,

inactive indicates a DTC for a condition during a

previous ignition switch cycle. When the ignition

switch is turned to OFF, inactive DTCs from previous

ignition switch cycles remain in the ECM memory until

cleared.

i05345689

Self-Diagnostics

Active/Inactive – With the ignition switch in the ON

position, active/inactive indicates a DTC for a

condition currently in the system and was present in a

previous ignition switch cycle, if the code was not

cleared.

The Electronic Control Module (ECM) can detect

faults in the electronic system and with engine

operation.

When a fault is detected, a diagnostic trouble code is

generated. An alarm may also be generated.

Engine Events

Standard Engine Events

Standard engine events include excessive coolant

temperature and engine rpm (over-speed).

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE.


 

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Optional Engine Events

Optional engine events are monitored and recorded,

if the engine is equipped with the optional Engine

Warning Protection System (EWPS). Optional engine

events recorded by the ECM include low coolant level

and low oil pressure.

Engine Event Hours

The ECM records engine events in hours .

The ECM stores the two most recent events. Two

events could happen in the same hour, and two

events could happen in the same mile.

i05346137

Sensors and Electrical

Connectors

Sensor Locations for the Engine

The illustrations in this section show the typical

locations of the sensors for the industrial engine.

Specific engines may appear different from the

illustration due to differences in applications.

Illustration 7

g02974017

Typical example

(1) Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) valve

(2) Inlet air temperature sensor

(3) Inlet manifold air pressure sensor

(4) Water in fuel sensor

(5) Engine oil temperaturesensor

(9) Control module

(10) Crankshaft position sensor

(11) Coolant jacket heater

(6) Injection pressure regulator

(7) Engine fuel pressure sensor

(8) Air inlet heater

(12) Engine oil pressure sensor

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Illustration 8

g02976178

Typical example

(13) Injection control pressure sensor

(internal)

(14) Exhaust back pressure sensor

(15) Engine coolant temperature sensor

(16) Camshaft position sensor

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Illustration 9

g02732035

Typical example

(1) EGR valve

(2) Inlet air temperature sensor

(3) Inlet manifold air pressure sensor

(4) Water in fuel sensor

(5) Engine oil temperaturesensor

(6) Injection pressure regulator

(7) Engine fuel pressure sensor

(8) Inlet Air Heater (IAH)

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Illustration 10

g02732036

Typical example

(9) Control module

(A) EGR valve control module

(B) Injection Drive Module (IDM)

(C) IAH relay

(D) Electronic Control Module (ECM)

Illustration 11

g02976197

Typical example

(10) Crankshaft position sensor

(11) Coolant jacket heater

(12) Engine oil pressure sensor

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Illustration 12

g02976216

Typical example

(13) Injection control pressure sensor

(14) Exhaust back pressure sensor

(15) Coolant temperature sensor

(16) Camshaft position sensor

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Electronic Troubleshooting

Illustration 13

g02976217

Typical example

(G) Injection control pressure connection

(H) Connector for injectors 1 and injector 2

(I) Connector for injectors 3 and injector 4

(J) Connector for injectors 5 and injector 6

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Wiring Harness

Illustration 14

g02740876

(1) Coolant temperature

(2) Exhaust back pressure

(3) EGR valve

(4) Injection control

(5) Injectors 1 and 2

(6) Water in fuel

(9) Inlet heater terminal

(10) Injectors 3 and 4

(11) Injectors 5 and 6

(12) Plug for inlet heater

(13) Relay

(14) Crankshaft position

(15) Injector drive connections

(16) ECM

(17) EGR control module

(18) Customer connection

(19) Low-pressure fuel

(20) Engine oil pressure

(21) Injection pressure regulator

(22) Oil temperature

(7) Inlet manifold air pressure

(8) Inlet air temperature

(23) Camshaft position connection

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE.


 

KENR8774

27

Electronic Troubleshooting

i05513190

Engine Wiring

Information

  

Schematic Diagrams

Illustration 15

g02212713

Schematic Diagram for the Injectors

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE.


 

28

KENR8774

Electronic Troubleshooting

Illustration 16

g02216053

Schematic Diagram for the Engine

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE.


 

KENR8774

29

Electronic Troubleshooting

Note: The EGR controller and EGR valve are

applicable to the 1600D engine only.

Illustration 17

g02223493

Schematic Diagram for a Typical Application

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE.


 

30

KENR8774

Electronic Troubleshooting

i05352877

ECM Harness Connector

Terminals

  

The Electronic Control Module (ECM) uses four

connectors that have 24 terminals to interface to the

wiring harness.

The Injector Driver Module (IDM) uses two

connectors that have 24 terminals and one connector

that has 32 terminals to interface to the wiring

harness.

Illustration 18

g03390396

Layout of the 24-pin connectors (view from the front)

Illustration 19

g03390435

Layout of the 32-pin IDM connector (view from the

front)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE.


 

KENR8774

31

Programming Parameters

Programming Parameters

7. Turn the ignition keyswitch to the ON position and

the OFF position when instructed to ensure that

the flash file is saved.

8. Only disconnect the 27610401  CA3

Communication Adaptor Kit from the ECM when

the  “Successfully Programmed”  message

appears.

i05583509

Programming Parameters

The electronic service tool can be used to view

certain parameters that can affect the operation of the

engine. The electronic service tool can also be used

to change certain parameters. The parameters are

stored in the Electronic Control Module (ECM).

i05585209

Flash Programming

Flash Programming – A method of loading a flash

file into the Electronic Control Module (ECM) and the

Injector Driver Module (IDM)

Flash Programming a Flash File

1. Contact “PartsHelpdesk@Perkins.com ” in order to

obtain the correct flash file. The flash file will be

sent via e-mail.

2. Use a 27610404 Power-Up Harness to provide

power to the ECM during the flash programming

procedure.

Note: If the 27610404 Power-Up Harness is not

available, the ECM and IDM must be correctly

connected to the batteries. The ECM must be able to

control the main power relay and there must be a

switch on the supply to ECM pin X3:3 and IDM pin

X3:9. The main power to each module must be via

relays that are switched by the modules. Refer to

Troubleshooting, “Engine Wiring Information”.

3. Connect the ECM to the computer using the

27610401 CA3 Communication Adaptor Kit.

Refer to Troubleshooting, “Electronic Service

Tools” for more information.

4. Start the flash file program that was sent via e-mail.

Note: The flash file is a self-contained executable file.

No other software is required other than the CA3

Communication Adaptor drivers that are included with

the  27610401 CA3 Communication Adaptor Kit.

5. Select the “Perkins CA3”  from the “Cables”   drop-

down box.

6. Follow the on-screen instructions in order to install

the flash file.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE.


 

32

KENR8774

Symptom Troubleshooting

Symptom Troubleshooting

i05352934

Alternator Is Noisy

Note: This symptom is not an electronic system fault.

Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting

for information on possible electrical causes of this

condition.

Probable Causes

•   Alternator drive belt and tensioner

•   Alternator mounting bracket

•   Alternator drive pulley

•   Alternator bearings

Recommended Actions

Note: The procedures have been listed in order of

probability. Complete the procedures in order.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE.


 

KENR8774

33

Symptom Troubleshooting

Table 3

TroubleshootingTest Steps

Values

Results

1. Alternator Drive Belt and Tensioner

Drive belt

Result: The alternator drive belt is in good condition and

the belt tension is correct.

A. Inspect the condition of the alternator drive belt.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

B. Check the belt tension. If necessary, check the automatic

belt tensioner.

Result: The alternator drive belts are not in good condition

or the belt tension is incorrect.

Note: Excessive belt tension can result in damage to the

alternator.

If the alternator drive belts are worn or damaged, replace

the belts. Refer to Disassembly and Assembly for the cor-

rect procedure.

If necessary, replace the automatic belt tensioner. Refer to

Disassembly and Assembly for the correct procedure.

Result: The alternator drive belts are in good condition and

the belt tension is correct.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

2. Alternator MountingBracket

AlternatorMounting  Result: The alternator mounting bracket is cracked and

Bracket

distorted.

A. Inspect the alternator mounting bracket for cracks and

distortion.

Repair the mounting bracket or replace the mounting

bracket.

Note: The repair/replacement will ensure that the alternator

drive belt and the alternator drive pulley are in alignment.

Result: The alternator mounting bracket is OK.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

3. Alternator Drive Pulley

Alternator Drive

Pulley

Result: There is excessive wear on the alternator drive

pulley.

A. Check the condition of the alternator drive pulley. Look for

deep grooves that have been worn into the pulley by the belt.

Check that the nut for the pulley has not become loose.

Replace the pulley.

Result: The alternator drive pulley nut was loose.

Tighten the nut.

Result: There is not excessive wear on the alternator drive

pulley.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

4. Alternator Bearings

Alternator bearings  Result: The alternator bearings are not OK.

A. Check the alternator bearings for signs of wear.

Repair the alternator or replace the alternator, as needed.

Refer to Disassembly and Assembly for the correct

procedure.

Result: The alternator bearings are OK.

Contact Perkins  Global Technical Support.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE.


 

34

KENR8774

Symptom Troubleshooting

i05354365

Alternator Problem

Note: This symptom is not an electronic system fault.

Probable Causes

•   Alternator drive belt and tensioner

•   Alternator

•   Charging circuit

Recommended Actions

Note: The procedures have been listed in order of

probability. Complete the procedures in order.

Table 4

TroubleshootingTest Steps

Values

Results

Result: The alternator drive belts are not in good condition

1. Alternator Drive Belt and Tensioner

Drive belt

or the belt tension is incorrect.

A. Inspect the condition of the alternator drive belt.

B. Check the belt tension. Check the automatic belt tensioner.

If the alternator drive belts are worn or damaged, replace

the belts. Refer to Disassembly and Assembly for the cor-

rect procedure.

Note: Excessive belt tension can result in damage to the

alternator.

If necessary, replace the automatic belt tensioner. Refer to

Disassembly and Assembly for the correct procedure.

Result: The alternator drive belts are in good condition and

the belt tension is correct.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

2. Alternator

Alternator

Result: The alternator is not operating correctly.

A. Verify that the alternator is operating correctly.

Repair the alternatoror replace the alternator, as necessary.

Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, “Alternator- Remove”

and Disassembly and Assembly, “Alternator- Install” for the

correct procedure.

Result: The alternator is operating properly.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

3. Charging Circuit

Charging circuit

Result: The charging circuit is not operating correctly.

A. Inspect the battery cables, wiring, and connections in the

charging circuit.

Clean all connections and tighten all connections. Replace

any faulty parts.

Result: The charging circuit is operating correctly.

Contact Perkins  Global Technical Support.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE.


 

KENR8774

35

Symptom Troubleshooting

i05354382

Battery Problem

  

Probable Causes

•   Charging circuit

•   Battery

•   Auxiliary device

Recommended Actions

Complete the procedure in the order in which the

steps are listed.

Table 5

TroubleshootingTest Steps

Values

Results

1. Charging Circuit

Charging

circuit

Result: The charging circuit is not OK.

Repair the charging circuit, as necessary.

Result: The charging circuit is OK.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

A. Check that the battery charging circuit is operating correctly. Re-

fer to Troubleshooting, “AlternatorProblem”.

2. Battery

Battery

Result: The battery is not OK.

A. Verify that the battery is no longer able to hold a charge. Refer

to Systems Operation/Testing and Adjusting, “Battery - Test”.

Replace the battery. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance

Manual, “Battery - Replace”.

Result: The battery is OK.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

3. Auxiliary Device

Auxiliary

Device

Result: The battery has been drained by an auxiliary device

being left in the ON position.

A. Check if an auxiliary device has drained the battery by being left

in the ON position.

Charge the battery. Verify that the battery is able to maintain a

charge. Refer to Systems Operation/Testing and Adjusting for

the correct procedure.

Result: The battery has not been drained by an auxiliary de-

vice being left in the ON position.

Contact Perkins  Global Technical Support.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE.


 

36

KENR8774

Symptom Troubleshooting

i05355795

Coolant Contains Oil

Recommended Actions

Table 6

TroubleshootingTest Steps

Values

Results

1. Engine Cooling System

Oil Cooler

Result: A leak is found in the engine cooling system.

A. Inspect and test the engine cooling system for leaks. Refer

to Systems Operation, Testing, and Adjusting, “Cooling Sys-

tem” for the proper procedure.

Repair any leaks.

Flush the cooling system. Refer to the Operation and Main-

tenance Manual for the correct procedure. Refill the cooling

system with the correct coolant. Refer to the Operation and

Maintenance Manual for the recommended coolant and

capacities.

Refill the engine with the proper oil after the leak has been

repaired. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual

for the correct oil capacities and viscosity.

Result: A leak was not found in the engine cooling system.

Contact Perkins Global Technical Support.

i05363437

Coolant Level Is Low

Use this procedure when the engine coolant level is

repeatedly found to be low or if the following

diagnostic code is active:

Table 7

Diagnostic Trouble Codes for Low Coolant Level

Code Description

DTC

Comments

323

Engine Coolant Level below warning/critical level

The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects that the engine coolant is

low. When the Engine Warning Protection System (EWPS) mode is 3-

way protection, the engine will shut down.

After the shutdown, the engine can be restarted for 30 seconds.

The ECM will log the engine hours at the time of the occurrence.

When the coolant has returned to the correct level, the code will be-

come inactive.

Inspect the cooling system. Refer to Systems

Operation, Testing, and Adjusting, “Cooling System -

Test” for the correct procedure.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE.


 

KENR8774

37

Symptom Troubleshooting

i05355807

Coolant Temperature Is High

Table 8

Diagnostic Trouble Codes for High Coolant Temperature

DTC

DTC Description

Comments

The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects that the engine cool-

ant temperatureis above 110° C (230° F).

321

Engine Coolant Temperatureabove warning level

The red engine lamp will come on.

The DTC will become inactive when the coolant temperature is less

than 110° C (230° F).

The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects that the engine cool-

ant temperatureis above 112° C (234° F).

322

325

Engine Coolant Temperatureabove critical level

The red engine lamp will come on.

The DTC will become inactive when the coolant temperature is less

than 112° C (234° F).

The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects that the engine cool-

ant temperatureis above 107° C (225° F).

Power reduced, matched to cooling system performance

The engine will be derated.

The DTC will become inactive when the coolant temperature is less

than 107° C (225° F).

Probable Causes

•   Diagnostic codes

•   Coolant level

•   Coolant temperature sensor

•   Radiator and hoses

•   Radiator cap and pressure relief valve

•   Water temperature regulator

•   Engine cooling fan

•   Injector sleeves

•   Quality of coolant

•   Coolant pump

•   Cylinder head gasket

•   Cylinder head

Recommended Actions

Note: The procedures have been listed in order of

probability. Complete the procedures in order.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE.


 

38

KENR8774

Symptom Troubleshooting

Table 9

TroubleshootingTest Steps

Values

Results

1. DiagnosticCodes

Diagnostic

Codes

Result: Diagnostic codes are not present.

Return the unit to service.

A. Use the electronic service tool to check for diagnostic codes

that relate to the temperaturein the cooling system.

Result: Diagnostic codes are present.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

2. Coolant Level

Engine coolant

level

Result: The engine coolant level is low.

A. Check the coolant level.

Check the cooling system for leaks. Refer to Troubleshoot-

ing, “Coolant Level is Low” for additional information. Re-

pair any leaks immediately.

Result: The engine coolant level is OK.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

3. Coolant Temperature Sensor

Coolant tem-

Result: The temperaturesensor is not accurate.

perature sensor

A. Compare the reading for the coolant temperatureon the elec-

tronic service tool to the reading for the coolant temperature on a

calibrated test gauge.

Troubleshoot the circuit and the coolant temperature sen-

sor. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Sensor Signal (Analog, Pas-

sive) - Test”.

Result: The temperaturesensor is reading accurately.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

4. Radiator and Hoses

Radiator and

hoses

Result: The radiator fins are blocked or damaged.

Remove any dirt and/or debris and straighten any bent fins.

Result: The radiator has internal blockage.

Remove the blockage.

A. Check the radiator fins for dirt, debris, and/or damage.

B. Check for collapsed hoses and/or other restrictions.

C. Check the radiator for internal blockage.

Result: The radiator fins are not damaged and the radiator

does not have an internal blockage.

Proceed to Test Step 5.

5. Radiator Cap and Pressure Relief Valve

Radiator cap

Result: The pressure relief valve and/or the water tempera-

ture regulator are not operating properly.

A. Pressure-test the cooling system. Refer to Systems Operation,

Testing, and Adjusting, “Cooling System” for the correct

procedure.

Clean the components or replace the components.

Result: The pressure relief valve and/or the water tempera-

B. Check that the seating surfaces of the pressure relief valve , and

the radiator cap are clean and undamaged.

ture regulator are operating properly.

Proceed to Test Step 6.

C. Check operation of the pressure relief valve and/or the water

temperature regulator.

6. Water Temperature Regulator

Water Temper-

ature Regulator

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE.


 

KENR8774

39

Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 9, contd)

TroubleshootingTest Steps

Values

Results

Check the water temperatureregulator for correct operation. Refer

to Systems Operation, Testing, and Adjusting, “Cooling System”

for the proper procedure.

Result: The water temperatureregulator is not operating

correctly.

Replace the water temperature regulator. Refer to Disas-

sembly and Assembly, “Water TemperatureRegulator - Re-

move and Install”.

Result: The water temperatureregulator is operating

correctly.

Proceed to Test Step 7.

7. Engine Cooling Fan

Fan and drive    Result: The drive belt is not tensioned correctly.

belt

A. Check for a loose drive belt.

Check the automatic tensioner and replace the tensioner, if

necessary.

Note: A loose fan drive belt will cause a reduction in the air flow

across the radiator.

Result: The fan is damaged.

B. Check the engine cooling fan for damage.

Repair the fan or replace the fan, as necessary. Refer to

Disassembly and Assembly, “Fan - Remove and Install”.

Result: The fan is OK and the fan belt is tensioned

correctly.

Proceed to Test Step 8.

8. Injector Sleeves

Result: There were no bubbles present in the coolant. The

coolant is not discolored.

A. Switch off the engine and allow the engine to cool to below nor-

mal working temperature. Remove the pressure cap for the cool-

ant system. Start the engine and inspect the coolant for the

presence of bubbles or discoloration of the coolant.

Combustion gases are not leaking into the coolant.

Contact Perkins  Global Technical Support.

Note: If bubbles are present in the coolant or the coolant is discol-

ored, combustion gases may be entering the cooling system.

Result: Coolant is leaking around the injector sleeves.

Replace any leaking injector sleeves. Refer to Disassembly

and Assembly, “Electronic Unit Injector Sleeve - Remove”

and Disassembly and Assembly, “Electronic Unit Injector

Sleeve - Install”.

B. Remove the fuel injectors. Refer to Disassembly and Assembly,

“Electronic Unit Injector - Remove”.

C. Install a radiator pressure tester with the appropriate adaptor.

D. Pressurize the cooling system to 96 kPa  (14 psi).

E. Look for coolant leaking around the injector sleeves.

Result: There is no coolant leaking around the injector

sleeves.

Proceed to Test Step 9.

9. Quality of Coolant

Coolant

Result: The coolant is not of an acceptable quality.

A. Check the quality of the coolant. Refer to the Operation and

Maintenance Manual, “Refill Capacities and Recommendations -

Coolant”.

Drain and refill the coolant system with coolant of the cor-

rect quality. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Man-

ual, “Refill Capacities and Recommendations - Coolant”.

Result: The coolant is of an acceptable quality.

Proceed to Test Step 10.

10. Inspection of the Coolant Pump

Coolant pump

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE.

 

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